Résumé: This paper presents the evolution of aquaculture in North Africa during the 20 last years, and the assets and bottlenecks for each country. This work uses the results of the European project Aquamed (2011-2013). The analysis of the evolutions of this sector, including research and development allows to establish a diagnosis on the strengths and the weaknesses in the four countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt). The retrospective analysis helps in identifying solutions for a more sustainable development. It also contributes to select priorities for action in a long-term vision (2035). This double overview, on the past and the future, should help decision-makers and experts to identify the best politics for a sector, which has a high potential in the region.