Résumé: Yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares, is one of the most important seafood commodities in the world. Despite its great biological and economic importance, conflicting evidence arises from classical genetic and tagging studies concerning the yellowfin tuna population structure at local and global oceanic scales. Access to more powerful and cost effective genetic tools would represent the first step towards resolving the population structure of yellowfin tuna across its distribution range. Using a panel of 939 neutral Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), and the most comprehensive data set of yellowfin samples available so far, we found genetic differentiation among the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. The genetic stock structure analysis carried out with 33 outlier SNPs, putatively under selection, identified discrete populations within the Pacific Ocean and, for the first time, also within the Atlantic Ocean. Stock assessment approaches that consider genetic differences at neutral and adaptive genomic loci should be routinely implemented to check the status of the yellowfin tuna, prevent illegal trade, and develop more sustainable management measures.