Résumé: This study focused on the effects of two pesticides, paraquat (herbicide) and deltamethrin (insecticide), which are two common molecules used intensively in Burkina Faso. Natural bacterial populations, phytoplankton cultures (one cyanobacterium, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and one chlorophycea, Monoraphidium sp.), and two species of zooplankton (Diaphanosoma excisum and Moina micrura) were isolated from aquatic communities and were used as biological targets in the experimental protocols. Paraquat was moderately toxic to bacteria and phytoplankton, whereas deltamethrin was significantly toxic only to the zooplankton species. Paradoxically, the chlorophycea Monoraphidium sp. exhibited a significant increase of in vitro fluorescence after 48 h at the highest doses. Preliminary tests were also performed from natural water extract of the main drinking water supply of the country (Loumbila Reservoir) by using solid-phase extraction. Obviously, the natural extract proved to be toxic to the same biological targets. Despite the absence of any determination of pesticides in the natural extract, the question of contamination and toxicity of these waters affects concerns about the safety of water supply and the effect of human pressure on the dynamics of planktonic communities of freshwater reservoirs in arid regions of western Africa.