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BLANCHETON, J. - P., BOSC, P., HUSSENOT, J., ROQUE D'ORBCASTEL, E., & ROMAIN, D. (2009). The 'new' European fish culture systems: Recirculating systems, offshore cages, integrated systems. Cahiers Agricultures, 18(2), 227–234.
Résumé: Over the last few decades, European fish culture was developed mainly as a intensive monospecific activity. In most countries, marine aquaculture cannot continue to develop on the shore line where it first settled due to high competition with other activities. It has now to move either offshore or into recirculation systems located in less occupied spaces. Fresh water availability and impact of fish production farms on the environment are strongly restraining the development of the activity, which is even declining in some countries such as France. Recirculation systems make it possible to decrease water consumption and facilitate waste treatment. Their economical feasibility is being demonstrated and they offer an alternative to developing fish farms. Whatever the rearing system, nutrients of feed are partially converted into fish flesh and most of them are thrown back as wastes into the environment. Integrated systems make it possible to convert such nutrients into algae, molluscs or fish and to release purified water. This article presents some aspects of the development of three types of rearing systems which are increasingly used in northern Europe: offshore cage culture, recirculation systems and integrated systems.