Résumé: Vulcanodinium rugosum, a dinoflagellate developing in Ingril Lagoon (Mediterranean, France) is responsible for shellfish intoxications due to the neurotoxin pinnatoxin G. A one year survey (March 2012–April 2013) was conducted in this oligotrophic shallow lagoon and key environmental parameters were recorded (temperature, salinity and nutrients). The spatio-temporal distribution of V. rugosum in water column and on macrophytes was also determined. Planktonic cells of V. rugosum were observed at all sampling stations, but in relatively low concentrations (maximum of 1000 cell/L). The highest abundances were observed from June to September 2012. There was a positive correlation between cell densities and both temperature and salinity. Non-motile cells were detected on macrophytes, with a maximum concentration of 6300 cells/g wet weight. Nitrite and ammonium were negatively related to V. rugosum abundance whereas total nitrogen, total phosphorus and phosphates showed a positive correlation. Altogether, in situ results suggest that V. rugosum is rather thermophilic and that organic nutrients should be considered when studying the nutrition requirements for this noxious expanding dinoflagellate.