Résumé: Estuarine areas represent complex and highly changing environments at the interface between freshwater and marine aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, the aquatic organisms living in estuaries have to face highly variable environmental conditions. The aim of this work was to study the influence of environmental changes from either natural or anthropogenic origins on the physiological responses of Mytilus edulis. Mussels were collected in the Vilaine estuary during early summer because this season represents a critical period of active reproduction in mussels and of increased anthropogenic inputs from agricultural and boating activities into the estuary. The physiological status of the mussel M. edulis was evaluated through measurements of a suite of biomarkers related to: oxidative stress (catalase, malondialdehyde), detoxication (benzopyrene hydroxylase, carboxylesterase), neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase), reproductive cycle (vitelline, condition index, maturation stages), immunotoxicity (hemocyte concentration, granulocyte percentage, phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, oxidative burst), and general physiological stress (lysosomal stability). A selection of relevant organic contaminant (pesticides, (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorobiphenyls) was measured as well as environmental parameters (water temperature, salinity, total suspended solids, turbidity, chlorophyll a, pheopigments) and mussel phycotoxin contamination. Two locations differently exposed to the plume of the Vilaine River were compared. Both temporal and inter-site variations of these biomarkers were studied. Our results show that reproduction cycle and environmental parameters such as temperature, organic ontaminants, and algal blooms could strongly influence the biomarker responses. These observations highlight the necessity to conduct integrated environmental approaches in order to better understand the causes of biomarker variations.