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Auteur Chiarello, M.; Villeger, S.; Bouvier, C.; Auguet, J.C.; Bouvier, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Captive bottlenose dolphins and killer whales harbor a species-specific skin microbiota that varies among individuals Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Scientific Reports  
  Volume 7 Numéro 1 Pages 15269  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé Marine animals surfaces host diverse microbial communities, which play major roles for host’s health. Most inventories of marine animal surface microbiota have focused on corals and fishes, while cetaceans remain overlooked. The few studies focused on wild cetaceans, making difficult to distinguish intrinsic inter- and/or intraspecific variability in skin microbiota from environmental effects. We used high-throughput sequencing to assess the skin microbiota from 4 body zones of 8 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and killer whales (Orcinus orca), housed in captivity (Marineland park, France). Overall, cetacean skin microbiota is more diverse than planktonic communities and is dominated by different phylogenetic lineages and functions. In addition, the two cetacean species host different skin microbiotas. Within each species, variability was higher between individuals than between body parts, suggesting a high individuality of cetacean skin microbiota. Overall, the skin microbiota of the assessed cetaceans related more to the humpback whale and fishes’ than to microbiotas of terrestrial mammals.  
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  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue en Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2347  
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Auteur Espinoza, P.; Lorrain, A.; Ménard, F.; Cherel, Y.; Tremblay-Boyer, L.; Argüelles, J.; Tafur, R.; Bertrand, S.; Tremblay, Y.; Ayón, P.; Munaron, J.-M.; Richard, P.; Bertrand, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Trophic structure in the northern Humboldt Current system: new perspectives from stable isotope analysis Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Mar Biol  
  Volume 164 Numéro 4 Pages 86  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé The northern Humboldt Current system (NHCS) is the most productive eastern boundary upwelling system (EBUS) in terms of fish productivity despite having a moderate primary production compared with other EBUS. To understand this apparent paradox, an updated vision of the trophic relationships in the NHCS is required. Using δ13C and δ15N as a proxy of foraging habitat and trophic position, respectively, we focused on thirteen relevant taxonomic groups from zooplankton to air-breathing top predators collected off Peru from 2008 to 2011. Estimates of trophic position (TP) for the anchoveta Engraulis ringens were high (3.4–3.7), in accordance with previous studies showing zooplankton as a major contributor to anchoveta diet and challenging the often-cited short food chain hypothesis for this ecosystem. The squat lobster, Pleuroncodes monodon, a little studied consumer had similar δ15N values that of anchoveta, and thus similar trophic position. However, their differing δ13C values indicate that their foraging habitat do not fully overlap, which could alleviate potential competition between these species. Given the current high biomass of squat lobsters in the ecosystem, we encourage that future research focus on this species and its role in the diet of top predators. The present study provides first estimates of the relative TP of important taxonomic groups in the NHCS, which are needed to revisit anchoveta-centred ecosystem models for this region. Further work using amino acid compound specific stable isotope analyses is now required to confirm these TP estimates.  
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  Langue en Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0025-3162, 1432-1793 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2092  
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Auteur Moullec, F.; Gascuel, D.; Bentorcha, K.; Guénette, S.; Robert, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Trophic models: What do we learn about Celtic Sea and Bay of Biscay ecosystems? Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Marine Systems  
  Volume 172 Numéro Pages 104-117  
  Mots-Clés Bay of Biscay; celtic sea; Ecopath with Ecosim; Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAFM); EcoTroph; Trophic indicators  
  Résumé Trophic models are key tools to go beyond the single-species approaches used in stock assessments to adopt a more holistic view and implement the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAFM). This study aims to: (i) analyse the trophic functioning of the Celtic Sea and the Bay of Biscay, (ii) investigate ecosystem changes over the 1980–2013 period and, (iii) explore the response to management measures at the food web scale. Ecopath models were built for each ecosystem for years 1980 and 2013, and Ecosim models were fitted to time series data of biomass and catches. EcoTroph diagnosis showed that in both ecosystems, fishing pressure focuses on high trophic levels (TLs) and, to a lesser extent, on intermediate TLs. However, the interplay between local environmental conditions, species composition and ecosystem functioning could explain the different responses to fisheries management observed between these two contiguous ecosystems. Indeed, over the study period, the ecosystem's exploitation status has improved in the Bay of Biscay but not in the Celtic Sea. This improvement does not seem to be sufficient to achieve the objectives of an EAFM, as high trophic levels were still overexploited in 2013 and simulations conducted with Ecosim in the Bay of Biscay indicate that at current fishing effort the biomass will not be rebuilt by 2030. The ecosystem's response to a reduction in fishing mortality depends on which trophic levels receive protection. Reducing fishing mortality on pelagic fish, instead of on demersal fish, appears more efficient at maximising catch and total biomass and at conserving both top-predator and intermediate TLs. Such advice-oriented trophic models should be used on a regular basis to monitor the health status of marine food webs and analyse the trade-offs between multiple objectives in an ecosystem-based fisheries management context.  
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  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0924-7963 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2093  
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Auteur Lavergne, C.; Agogué, H.; Leynaert, A.; Raimonet, M.; De Wit, R.; Pineau, P.; Bréret, M.; Lachaussée, N.; Dupuy, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Factors influencing prokaryotes in an intertidal mudflat and the resulting depth gradients Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science  
  Volume 189 Numéro Pages 74-83  
  Mots-Clés Benthic ecology; Intertidal mudflat; microbial communities; Sediment depth  
  Résumé Intertidal mudflats are rich and fluctuating systems in which the upper 20 cm support a high diversity and density of microorganisms that ensure diversified roles. The depth profiles of microbial abundances and activities were measured in an intertidal mudflat (Marennes-Oléron Bay, SW France) at centimeter-scale resolution (0–10 cm below the sediment surface). The aim of the study was to detect microbial stratification patterns within the sediments and the way in which this stratification is shaped by environmental drivers. Two sampling dates, i.e. one in summer and another in winter, were compared. The highest activities of the microbial communities were observed in July in the surface layers (0–1 cm), with a strong decrease of activities with depth. In contrast, in February, low microbial bulk activities were recorded throughout the sediment. In general, prokaryotic abundances and activities were significantly correlated. Variation partitioning analysis suggested a low impact of predation and a mainly bottom-up-controlled prokaryotic community. Hence, in the top layer from the surface to 1–3.5 cm depth, microbial communities were mainly affected by physicochemical variables (i.e. salinity, phosphate and silicate concentrations). Below this zone and at least to 10 cm depth, environmental variables were more stable and prokaryotic activities were low. The transition zone between both layers probably represents a rather smooth gradient (environmental ecocline). The results of our study provide a better understanding of the complex interactions between micro-organisms and their environment in a fluctuating ecosystem such as an intertidal mudflat.  
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  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0272-7714 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2094  
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Auteur Lemahieu, A.; Blaison, A.; Crochelet, E.; Bertrand, G.; Pennober, G.; Soria, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Human-shark interactions: The case study of Reunion island in the south-west Indian Ocean Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Ocean & Coastal Management  
  Volume 136 Numéro Pages 73-82  
  Mots-Clés Human-shark conflict; MPA governance; Recreational uses; Risk mitigation policies; Shark attack  
  Résumé An uncommon series of shark attacks, mostly involving surfers, occurred on the West coast of Reunion Island between 2011 and 2013, causing eight deaths. Following these events, which resulted in social, economic and political upheaval, and referred to as the “shark crisis”, a scientific program with the aim of understanding shark behavior and ecology in Reunion Island was launched in 2012. It integrated spatial and temporal monitoring protocol of coastal uses allowing for the study of shark attack repercussions on the dynamics of 15 types of uses. In this paper, we bring shark and users observations together in order to assess human-shark interactions. Firstly, we assess the impacts that shark attacks have triggered in terms of users spatiotemporal distribution between 2011 and 2013. Secondly, we explore human-shark interactions in 2013 using cross-mapping techniques. Results show that three areas (Saint-Gilles, Trois-Bassins, Etang-Salé) have high levels of potential interaction and should be of high interest for the local authorities and stakeholders for further mitigation policies. Although further studies are needed to better understand the link between shark presence and shark attack, this study provides a first insight into human-shark interactions in Reunion Island.  
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  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0964-5691 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2095  
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