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Auteur BROGGIATO, A.; ARNAUD-HAOND, S.; CHIAROLLA, C.; GREIBER, T. url  openurl
  Titre (up) Fair and equitable sharing of benefits from the utilization of marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction: Bridging the gaps between science and policy Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Policy  
  Volume 49 Numéro Pages 176-185  
  Mots-Clés Access and benefit-sharing; Common pool resources; Intellectual property rights; Marine genetic resources; Marine scientific research; Public domain  
  Résumé Marine genetic resources are a subject of a growing body of research and development activities, as demonstrated by the abundance of marine patented genes reported in GenBank. Given the lack of a comprehensive legal regime for the management of marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction, the General Assembly of the United Nations met in 2006 to discuss whether there are regulatory or governance gaps and how to address them. Besides the crystallization of the different political positions, the process is now advancing towards making a decision about whether to develop an international instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity, within which the regulation of access to genetic resources and the sharing of benefits from their utilization has emerged as an in-dissociable issue. In order to propose concrete options to be considered for the establishment of a legal framework addressing these issues, policy-makers need to better understand the feasibility, the costs and the modalities of scientific activities undertaken, together with the actual level of commercialization of new products. They also need to be aware of the already advanced practices in place within the scientific community, especially regarding sharing of non-monetary benefits. This paper particularly highlights and discusses practical scenarios to advance in the international process, based on the approaches adopted in other regional and international regimes for the management of genetic resources and on the best practices developed within the scientific community.  
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  ISSN 0308-597x ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 377  
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Auteur Killen, S.S.; Marras, S.; McKenzie, D.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre (up) Fast growers sprint slower: effects of food deprivation and re-feeding on sprint swimming performance in individual juvenile European sea bass Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Experimental Biology  
  Volume 217 Numéro 6 Pages 859-865  
  Mots-Clés Compensatory growth; Ecophysiology; Food deprivation; Foraging; Locomotion; atlantic; catch-up growth; cod; dicentrarchus-labrax; ecological performance; gadus-morhua; long-term starvation; metabolic responses; salmon; teleost fish; trade-off; trade-offs; trout oncorhynchus-mykiss  
  Résumé While many ectothermic species can withstand prolonged fasting without mortality, food deprivation may have sublethal effects of ecological importance, including reductions in locomotor ability. Little is known about how such changes in performance in individual animals are related to either mass loss during food deprivation or growth rate during re-feeding. This study followed changes in the maximum sprint swimming performance of individual European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, throughout 45 days of food deprivation and 30 days of re-feeding. Maximum sprint speed did not show a significant decline until 45 days of food deprivation. Among individuals, the reduction in sprinting speed at this time was not related to mass loss. After 30 days of re-feeding, mean sprinting speed had recovered to match that of control fish. Among individuals, however, maximum sprinting speed was negatively correlated with growth rate after the resumption of feeding. This suggests that the rapid compensatory growth that occurs during re-feeding after a prolonged fast carries a physiological cost in terms of reduced sprinting capacity, the extent of which shows continuous variation among individuals in relation to growth rate. The long-term repeatability of maximum sprint speed was low when fish were fasted or fed a maintenance ration, but was high among control fish fed to satiation. Fish that had been previously food deprived continued to show low repeatability in sprinting ability even after the initiation of ad libitum feeding, probably stemming from variation in compensatory growth among individuals and its associated negative effects on sprinting ability. Together, these results suggest that food limitation can disrupt hierarchies of maximum sprint performance within populations. In the wild, the cumulative effects on locomotor capacity of fasting and re-feeding could lead to variable survival among individuals with different growth trajectories following a period of food deprivation.  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 601  
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Auteur Zilius, M.; Bartoli, M.; Bresciani, M.; Katarzyte, M.; Ruginis, T.; Petkuviene, J.; Lubiene, I.; Giardino, C.; Bukaveckas, P.A.; De Wit, R.; Razinkovas-Baziukas, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre (up) Feedback Mechanisms Between Cyanobacterial Blooms, Transient Hypoxia, and Benthic Phosphorus Regeneration in Shallow Coastal Environments Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Estuaries and Coasts  
  Volume 37 Numéro 3 Pages 680-694  
  Mots-Clés baltic sea; chesapeake bay; curonian lagoon; Cyanobacterial blooms; ecosystem metabolism; Estuary; gulf; Hypoxia; Net; nutrient limitation; Oxygen; Phosphorus release; respiration; satellite data; temporal variability  
  Résumé We investigated the dissolved oxygen metabolism of the Curonian Lagoon (Baltic Sea) to assess the relative contributions of pelagic and benthic processes to the development of transient hypoxic conditions in shallow water habitats. Metabolism measurements along with the remote sensing-derived estimates of spatial variability in chlorophyll a were used to evaluate the risk of hypoxia at the whole lagoon level. Our data demonstrate that cyanobacterial blooms strongly inhibit light penetration, resulting in net heterotrophic conditions in which pelagic oxygen demand exceeds benthic oxygen demand by an order of magnitude. The combination of bloom conditions and reduced vertical mixing during calm periods resulted in oxygen depletion of bottom waters and greater sediment nutrient release. The peak of reactive P regeneration (nearly 30 mu mol m(-2) h(-1)) coincided with oxygen depletion in the water column, and resulted in a marked drop of the inorganic N:P ratio (from > 40 to < 5, as molar). Our results suggest a strong link between cyanobacterial blooms, pelagic respiration, hypoxia, and P regeneration, which acts as a feedback in sustaining algal blooms through internal nutrient cycling. Meteorological data and satellite-derived maps of chlorophyll a were used to show that nearly 70 % of the lagoon surface (approximately 1,000 km(2)) is prone to transient hypoxia development when blooms coincide with low wind speed conditions.  
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  ISSN 1559-2723 ISBN Médium  
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  Notes <p>ISI Document Delivery No.: AF0SM<br/>Times Cited: 1<br/>Cited Reference Count: 66<br/>Zilius, Mindaugas Bartoli, Marco Bresciani, Mariano Katarzyte, Marija Ruginis, Tomas Petkuviene, Jolita Lubiene, Irma Giardino, Claudia Bukaveckas, Paul A. de Wit, Rutger Razinkovas-Baziukas, Arturas<br/>European Union Structural Funds project “Postdoctoral Fellowship Implementation in Lithuania”; Fulbright Fellowship; ESA project [AO-553]; CYAN-IS-WAS (Ministero dell'Istruzione dell'Universita e della Ricerca, Science and technological of Sweden); CLAM-PHYM (Italian Space Agency) [ASI I/015/11/0]<br/>Mindaugas Zilius was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship funded by the European Union Structural Funds project “Postdoctoral Fellowship Implementation in Lithuania.” Paul Bukaveckas was supported by a Fulbright Fellowship during his residence at Klaipeda University. MERIS data were made available through the ESA project AO-553 (MELINOS). This study was co-funded by CYAN-IS-WAS (Ministero dell'Istruzione dell'Universita e della Ricerca, Science and technological cooperation between Italy and the Kingdom of Sweden) and CLAM-PHYM (Italian Space Agency, contract ASI I/015/11/0) projects. We gratefully thank the Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service of the Ministry of Environment for providing meteorological data. We also gratefully thank three anonymous reviewers for valuable comments which improved the quality of the manuscript.<br/>Springer<br/>New york</p> Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1184  
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Auteur Sabarros, P.S.; Grémillet, D.; Demarcq, H.; Moseley, C.; Pichegru, L.; Mullers, R.H.E.; Stenseth, N.C.; Machu, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre (up) Fine-scale recognition and use of mesoscale fronts by foraging Cape gannets in the Benguela upwelling region Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography  
  Volume Numéro Pages 77-84  
  Mots-Clés Area-restricted search; Behavioral shift; Environmental cue; Feeding activity; Fractal landscape; Morus capensis; Oceanographic fronts; seabird; South Africa; southern Benguela  
  Résumé Oceanic structures such as mesoscale fronts may become hotspots of biological activity through concentration and enrichment processes. These fronts generally attract fish and may therefore be targeted by marine top-predators. In the southern Benguela upwelling system, such fronts might be used as environmental cues by foraging seabirds. In this study we analyzed high-frequency foraging tracks (GPS, 1 s sampling) of Cape gannets Morus capensis from two colonies located on the west and east coast of South Africa in relation to mesoscale fronts detected on daily high-resolution chlorophyll-a maps (MODIS, 1 km). We tested the association of (i) searching behavior and (ii) diving activity of foraging birds with mesoscale fronts. We found that Cape gannets shift from transiting to area-restricted search mode (ARS) at a distance from fronts ranging between 2 and 11 km (median is 6.7 km). This suggests that Cape gannets may be able to sense fronts (smell or vision) or other predators, and that such detection triggers an intensified investigation of their surroundings (i.e. ARS). Also we found that diving probability increases near fronts in 11 out of 20 tracks investigated (55%), suggesting that Cape gannets substantially use fronts for feeding; in the remaining cases (45%), birds may have used other cues for feeding including fishing vessels, particularly for gannets breeding on the west coast. We demonstrated in this study that oceanographic structures such as mesoscale fronts are important environmental cues used by a foraging seabird within the rich waters of an upwelling system. There is now need for further investigations on how Cape gannets actually detect these fronts.  
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  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Fronts, Fish and Top Predators Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection 107 Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0967-0645 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1204  
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Auteur Jeanmougin, M.; Leprieur, F.; Lois, G.; Clergeau, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre (up) Fine-scale urbanization affects Odonata species diversity in ponds of a megacity (Paris, France) Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Acta Oecologica-International Journal of Ecology  
  Volume 59 Numéro Pages 26-34  
  Mots-Clés Evenness; Landscape composition; Model averaging; Ponds; Species diversity; Urban ecology; agricultural landscape; comparative biodiversity; conservation; dragonflies odonata; ecology; fresh-water habitat; patterns; richness; selection; urban  
  Résumé Current developments in urban ecology include very few studies focused on pond ecosystems, though ponds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots. Using Odonata as an indicator model, we explored changes in species composition in ponds localized along an urban gradient of a megacity (Paris, France). We then assessed the relative importance of local- and landscape-scale variables in shaping Odonata alpha-diversity patterns using a model-averaging approach. Analyses were performed for adult (A) and adult plus exuviae (AE) census data. At 26 ponds, we recorded 657 adults and 815 exuviae belonging to 17 Odonata species. The results showed that the Odonata species assemblage composition was not determined by pond localization along the urban gradient. Similarly, pond characteristics were found to be similar among urban, suburban and periurban ponds. The analyses of AE census data revealed that fine-scale urbanization (i.e., increased density of buildings surrounding ponds) negatively affects Odonata alpha-diversity. In contrast, pond localization along the urban gradient weakly explained the alpha-diversity patterns. Several local-scale variables, such as the coverage of submerged macrophytes, were found to be significant drivers of Odonata alpha-diversity. Together, these results show that the degree of urbanization around ponds must be considered instead of pond localization along the urban gradient when assessing the potential impacts of urbanization on Odonata species diversity This work also indicates the importance of exuviae sampling in understanding the response of Odonata to urbanization. (C) 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.  
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  ISSN 1146-609x ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 602  
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