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Auteur Patino, J.; Weigelt, P.; Guilhaumon, F.; Kreft, H.; Triantis, K.A.; Naranjo-Cigala, A.; Solymos, P.; Vanderpoorten, A. url  doi
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  Titre (up) Differences in species-area relationships among the major lineages of land plants: a macroecological perspective Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Global Ecology and Biogeography  
  Volume 23 Numéro 11 Pages 1275-1283  
  Mots-Clés biology; bryophytes; Carrying capacity; cloning; data; Dispersal ability; et-al.; geographical; isolation; long-distance dispersal; maximum-entropy; pteridophytes; range sizes; richness; scale; species-area relationship; species richness; species turnover; spermatophytes; spore-producing plants; universality  
  Résumé AimAlthough the increase in species richness with increasing area is considered one of the few laws in ecology, the role of environmental and taxon-specific features in shaping species-area relationships (SARs) remains controversial. Using 421 land-plant floras covering continents, continental islands and oceanic islands, we investigate whether variations in SAR parameters can be interpreted in terms of differences among lineages in speciation mode and dispersal capacities (TAXON), or of geological history and geographical isolation between continents and islands (GEO). LocationGlobal. MethodsLinear mixed-effects models describing variation in SARs, depending on the factors GEO and TAXON and controlling for differences between realms (REALM) and biomes (BIOME). ResultsThe best random-effect structure included both random slopes and random intercepts for GEO, TAXON, REALM and BIOME. This accounted for 77% of the total variation in species richness, substantially more than the 27% statistically explained by the model with fixed effects only (i.e. the simple SAR). The slopes of the SARs were higher for oceanic islands than for continental islands and continents, and higher in spermatophytes than in pteridophytes and bryophytes. The intercepts largely exhibited the reverse trend. TAXON was included in best-fit models restricted to oceanic and continental islands, but not continents. Analysing each plant lineage separately, the intercept of GEO was only included in the random structure of spermatophytes. Main conclusionsSAR parameters varied considerably depending on geological history and taxon-specific traits. Such differences in SARs among land plants challenge the neutral theory that the accumulation of species richness on islands is controlled exclusively by extrinsic factors. Taxon-specific differences in SARs were, however, confounded by interactions with geological history and geographical isolation. This highlights the importance of applying integrative frameworks that take both environmental context and taxonomic idiosyncrasies into account in SAR analyses.  
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  ISSN 1466-822x ISBN Médium  
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  Notes <p>ISI Document Delivery No.: AR6ZU<br/>Times Cited: 2<br/>Cited Reference Count: 59<br/>Patino, Jairo Weigelt, Patrick Guilhaumon, Francois Kreft, Holger Triantis, Kostas A. Naranjo-Cigala, Agustin Solymos, Peter Vanderpoorten, Alain<br/>Belgian Funds for Scientific Research (FNRS) [1.5036.11, 2.4557.11]; University of Liege [C 11/32]; European Union [ES-TAF-2553, SE-TAF-1361, GB-TAF-1801]; DFG Initiative of Excellence via the Free Floater programme at the University of Gottingen<br/>Many thanks are given to Richard Field, David Currie, Silvia C. Aranda, Joaquin Hortal and three referees for their constructive comments on the manuscript. We are particularly grateful to S. Robbert Gradstein for providing unpublished data from Hawaii, Juana M. Gonzalez-Mancebo for making available unpublished data for the Canarian islets, and Martin Turjak for drawings. J.P and A.V. gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Belgian Funds for Scientific Research (FNRS) (grants 1.5036.11 and 2.4557.11) and the University of Liege (grant C 11/32); J.P. also acknowledges support from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement ES-TAF-2553, SE-TAF-1361 and GB-TAF-1801 (SYNTHESYS); P.W and H.K. were funded by the DFG Initiative of Excellence via the Free Floater programme at the University of Gottingen.<br/>Wiley-blackwell<br/>Hoboken</p> Approuvé pas de  
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Auteur Boudour-Boucheker, N.; Boulo, V.; Charmantier-Daures, M.; Grousset, E.; Anger, K.; Charmantier, G.; Lorin-Nebel, C. url  doi
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  Titre (up) Differential distribution of V-type H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase in the branchial chamber of the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Cell and Tissue Research  
  Volume 357 Numéro 1 Pages 195-206  
  Mots-Clés Branchiostegite; Gills; Na+/K+-ATPase; Osmoregulation; V-type H+-ATPase; crab eriocheir-sinensis; decapoda; epithelial potential difference; fresh-water crab; gill epithelium; homarus-gammarus; ion-transport; larval development; lobster; olfersii; plasma-membrane; salinity acclimation  
  Résumé V-H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase were localized in the gills and branchiostegites of M. amazonicum and the effects of salinity on the branchial chamber ultrastructure and on the localization of transporters were investigated. Gills present septal and pillar cells. In freshwater (FW), the apical surface of pillar cells is amplified by extensive evaginations associated with mitochondria. V-H+-ATPase immunofluorescence was localized in the membranes of the apical evaginations and in clustered subapical areas of pillar cells, suggesting labeling of intracellular vesicle membranes. Na+/K+-ATPase labeling was restricted to the septal cells. No difference in immunostaining was recorded for both proteins according to salinity (FW vs. 25 PSU). In the branchiostegite, both V-H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase immunofluorescence were localized in the same cells of the internal epithelium. Immunogold revealed that V-H+-ATPase was localized in apical evaginations and in electron-dense areas throughout the inner epithelium, while Na+/K+-ATPase occurred densely along the basal infoldings of the cytoplasmic membrane. Our results suggest that morphologically different cell types within the gill lamellae may also be functionally specialized. We propose that, in FW, pillar cells expressing V-H+-ATPase absorb ions (Cl-, Na+) that are transported either directly to the hemolymph space or through a junctional complex to the septal cells, which may be responsible for active Na+ delivery to the hemolymph through Na+/K+-ATPase. This suggests a functional link between septal and pillar cells in osmoregulation. When shrimps are transferred to FW, gill and branchiostegite epithelia undergo ultrastructural changes, most probably resulting from their involvement in osmoregulatory processes.  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 541  
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Auteur Arnaud-Haond, S.; Moalic, Y.; Barnabé, C.; Ayala, F.J.; Tibayrenc, M. url  doi
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  Titre (up) Discriminating Micropathogen Lineages and Their Reticulate Evolution through Graph Theory-Based Network Analysis: The Case of Trypanosoma cruzi, the Agent of Chagas Disease Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée PLoS ONE  
  Volume 9 Numéro 8 Pages  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé Micropathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasitic protozoa) share a common trait, which is partial clonality, with wide variance in the respective influence of clonality and sexual recombination on the dynamics and evolution of taxa. The discrimination of distinct lineages and the reconstruction of their phylogenetic history are key information to infer their biomedical properties. However, the phylogenetic picture is often clouded by occasional events of recombination across divergent lineages, limiting the relevance of classical phylogenetic analysis and dichotomic trees. We have applied a network analysis based on graph theory to illustrate the relationships among genotypes of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasitic protozoan responsible for Chagas disease, to identify major lineages and to unravel their past history of divergence and possible recombination events. At the scale of T. cruzi subspecific diversity, graph theory-based networks applied to 22 isoenzyme loci (262 distinct Multi-Locus-Enzyme-Electrophoresis -MLEE) and 19 microsatellite loci (66 Multi-Locus-Genotypes -MLG) fully confirms the high clustering of genotypes into major lineages or “near-clades”. The release of the dichotomic constraint associated with phylogenetic reconstruction usually applied to Multilocus data allows identifying putative hybrids and their parental lineages. Reticulate topology suggests a slightly different history for some of the main “near-clades”, and a possibly more complex origin for the putative hybrids than hitherto proposed. Finally the sub-network of the near-clade T. cruzi I (28 MLG) shows a clustering subdivision into three differentiated lesser near-clades (“Russian doll pattern”), which confirms the hypothesis recently proposed by other investigators. The present study broadens and clarifies the hypotheses previously obtained from classical markers on the same sets of data, which demonstrates the added value of this approach. This underlines the potential of graph theory-based network analysis for describing the nature and relationships of major pathogens, thereby opening stimulating prospects to unravel the organization, dynamics and history of major micropathogen lineages.  
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  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 390  
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Auteur ARNAUD-HAOND, S.; MOALIC, Y.; HERNANDEZ-GARCIA, E.; EGUILUZ, V.M.; ALBERTO, F.; SERRAO, E.A.; DUARTE, C.M. url  openurl
  Titre (up) Disentangling the Influence of Mutation and Migration in Clonal Seagrasses Using the Genetic Diversity Spectrum for Microsatellites Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal Of Heredity  
  Volume 105 Numéro 4 Pages 532-541  
  Mots-Clés clonality; genetic divergence; Genetic Diversity Spectrum; microsatellites; Seagrass; stepwise mutation  
  Résumé The recurrent lack of isolation by distance reported at regional scale in seagrass species was recently suggested to stem from stochastic events of large-scale dispersal. We explored the usefulness of phylogenetic information contained in microsatellite loci to test this hypothesis by using the Genetic Diversity Spectrum (GDS) on databases containing, respectively, 7 and 9 microsatellites genotypes for 1541 sampling units of Posidonia oceanica and 1647 of Cymodocea nodosa. The simultaneous increase of microsatellite and geographic distances that emerges reveals a coherent pattern of isolation by distance in contrast to the chaotic pattern previously described using allele frequencies, in particular, for the long-lived P. oceanica. These results suggest that the lack of isolation by distance, rather than the resulting from rare events of large-scale dispersal, reflects at least for some species a stronger influence of mutation over migration at the scale of the distribution range. The global distribution of genetic polymorphism may, therefore, result predominantly from ancient events of step-by-step (re)colonization followed by local recruitment and clonal growth, rather than contemporary gene flow. The analysis of GDS appears useful to unravel the evolutionary forces influencing the dynamics and evolution at distinct temporal and spatial scales by accounting for phylogenetic information borne by microsatellites, under an appropriate mutation model. This finding adds nuance to the generalization of the influence of large-scale dispersal on the dynamics of seagrasses.  
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  ISSN 0022-1503 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1138  
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Auteur Triki, H.Z.; Daly-Yahia, O.K.; Malouche, D.; Komiha, Y.; Deidun, A.; Brahim, M.; Laabir, M. url  doi
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  Titre (up) Distribution of resting cysts of the potentially toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax in recently-deposited sediment within Bizerte Lagoon (Mediterranean coast, Tunisia) Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Pollution Bulletin  
  Volume 84 Numéro 1-2 Pages 172-181  
  Mots-Clés Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax; autocorrelation; bay; Benthic; blooms; cysts; dynamics; eutrophication; gonyaulax-excavata; gulf; Harmful algae; Mapping; Mediterranean Lagoon of Bizerte; resting cysts; Sediment characteristics; spatial-distribution; surface sediments  
  Résumé This study investigated the spatial distribution of Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax resting cysts in recently-deposited sediment of Bizerte lagoon (South-Western Mediterranean, Tunisia). This lagoon is the subject of many anthropogenic impacts, such as holding important fishing and aquaculture activities. A. pseudogonyaulax has been shown to produce Goniodomin A, which is a biologically-active compound. We showed that this dinoflagellate produces two types of resting cysts, which could be distinguished by the presence or the absence of a paratabulate wall. The average cyst density across the whole lagoon was rather high, reaching 639 cysts g(-1) of dry sediment (DS). Cyst densities varied widely among the sampled stations, with the highest density of 1685 cyst g(-1) DS being recorded at station 51 near a mussel farm. With respect to sediment characteristics, the highest cyst densities were found within silty sediments with high water content values. The distribution of A. pseudongoyaulax cysts in Bizerte lagoon appears to be related to hydrodynamic factors. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.  
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  ISSN 0025-326x ISBN Médium  
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  Notes <p>ISI Document Delivery No.: AL0GF<br/>Times Cited: 0<br/>Cited Reference Count: 45<br/>Triki, Habiba Zmerli Daly-Yahia, Ons Kefi Malouche, Dhafer Komiha, Yosr Deidun, Alan Brahim, Mouldi Iaabir, Mohamed<br/>JEAI ECO-BIZ (Jeune Equipe Associee, Ecologie de la lagune de Bizerte) program – IRD (Institut Francais pour la Recherche et le Developpement), IRD; TOTAL Foundation<br/>This work benefitted from financial supports from the JEAI ECO-BIZ (Jeune Equipe Associee, Ecologie de la lagune de Bizerte) program funded by IRD (Institut Francais pour la Recherche et le Developpement), IRD also funded 2 months stay of Dr. Mohamed Laabir in Tunis (INAT). Thanks to TOTAL Foundation for funding LAGUNOTOX project which supported financially the stay of Mrs Triki-Zmerli in Montpellier.<br/>Pergamon-elsevier science ltd<br/>Oxford</p> Approuvé pas de  
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