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Auteur Toussaint, A.; Beauchard, O.; Oberdorff, T.; Brosse, S.; Villeger, S.
Titre (up) Historical assemblage distinctiveness and the introduction of widespread non-native species explain worldwide changes in freshwater fish taxonomic dissimilarity Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Global Ecology and Biogeography
Volume 23 Numéro 5 Pages 574-584
Mots-Clés Beta diversity; differentiation; freshwater fish; homogenization; macroecology; partitioning; turnover
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ISSN 1466-8238 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1174
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Auteur D'Agata, S.; Mouillot, D.; Kulbicki, M.; Andrefouet, S.; Bellwood, D.R.; Cinner, J.E.; Cowman, P.F.; Kronen, M.; Pinca, S.; Vigliola, L.
Titre (up) Human-Mediated Loss of Phylogenetic and Functional Diversity in Coral Reef Fishes Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Current Biology
Volume 24 Numéro 5 Pages 555-560
Mots-Clés biodiversity hotspots; climate-change; communities; evolutionary; great-barrier-reef; land-use; parrotfishes; patterns; productivity; resilience
Résumé Beyond the loss of species richness [1-3], human activities may also deplete the breadth of evolutionary history (phylogenetic diversity) and the diversity of roles (functional diversity) carried out by species within communities, two overlooked components of biodiversity. Both are, however, essential to sustain ecosystem functioning and the associated provision of ecosystem services, particularly under fluctuating environmental conditions [1-7]. We quantified the effect of human activities on the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity of fish communities in coral reefs, while teasing apart the influence of biogeography and habitat along a gradient of human pressure across the Pacific Ocean. We detected nonlinear relationships with significant breaking points in the impact of human population density on phylogenetic and functional diversity of parrot-fishes, at 25 and 15 inhabitants/km(2), respectively, while parrot-fish species richness decreased linearly along the same population gradient. Over the whole range, species richness decreased by 11.7%, while phylogenetic and functional diversity dropped by 35.8% and 46.6%, respectively. Our results call for caution when using species richness as a benchmark for measuring the status of ecosystems since it appears to be less responsive to variation in human population densities than its phylogenetic and functional counterparts, potentially imperiling the functioning of coral reef ecosystems.
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 645
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Auteur Garavelli, L.; Kaplan, D.; Colas, F.; Stotz, W.; Yannicelli, B.; Lett, C.
Titre (up) Identifying appropriate spatial scales for marine conservation and management using a larval dispersal model : the case of Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Progress in Oceanography
Volume 124 Numéro Pages 42-53
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Résumé Along the coast of Chile, fisheries targeting the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas, commonly named “loco”, were highly valuable until the end of the 80s when catches declined significantly. Since the late 90s, a management plan based on territorial-user-rights areas has been implemented, with limited effect on stock recovery. More effective loco conservation and management is impeded by lack of information regarding connectivity via larval dispersal between these individually-managed areas. To develop a regional view of loco connectivity, we integrate loco life history information into a biophysical, individual-based larval dispersal model. This model is used to evaluate scales of loco connectivity and seasonality in connectivity patterns, as well as to partition the coast into largely disconnected subpopulations using a recently developed connectivity-matrix clustering algorithm. We find mean dispersal distances ranging from 170 to 220 km depending on release depth of larvae and planktonic larval duration. Settlement success levels depend quantitatively on the physical and biological processes included in the model, but connectivity patterns remain qualitatively similar. Model estimates of settlement success peak for larval release dates in late austral autumn, consistent with field results and with favorable conditions for larval coastal retention due to weak upwelling during austral autumn. Despite the relatively homogeneous Chilean coastline, distinct subpopulations with minimal connectivity between them are readily identifiable. Barriers to connectivity that are robust to changes in model configuration exist at 23 degrees S and 29 degrees S latitudes. These zones are all associated with important headlands and embayments of the Chilean coast.
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ISSN 0079-6611 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 359
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Auteur BAUER, R.; Graewe, U.; Stepputtis, D.; Zimmermann, C.; Hammer, C.
Titre (up) Identifying the location and importance of spawning sites of Western Baltic herring using a particle backtracking model Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Ices Journal Of Marine Science
Volume 71 Numéro 3 Pages 499-509
Mots-Clés backtracking; Baltic Sea; Clupea harengus; hatching sites; lagoon; larval transport; spring spawning
Résumé The recruitment success of some herring stocks fluctuates strongly, and apparently, success is often already determined during the early life stages, i.e. before metamorphosis. In studying the survival of early life stages and its affecting factors, particularly those during the egg stage, it is crucial to examine the processes at the spawning sites, which often cannot be explored directly. A recent decline in the recruitment of Western Baltic spring-spawning herring (WBSSH) increases the urgency of filling the knowledge gap for this stock, especially because one bottleneck in the recruitment seems to occur before hatching. We examined the successful 20032009 spawning sites of WBSSH in the main spawning ground, the Greifswalder Bodden lagoon. Instead of using common techniques such as diving or underwater videography, which are usually unsuitable for mapping large areas, we applied a model approach. We tracked herring larvae at length 610 mm, recorded by larval surveys during MarchJune of the respective years, back to their hatching sites using a Lagrangian particle backtracking model. We compared the spawning areas identified by the model with the results of earlier field studies; however, we also analysed variations between years, larval length groups, and different applied growth models, which are needed to define hatch-dates. Although spawning sites could not be identified with high precision because of the strong diffusion in the area studied, results indicate that larvae up to 10 mm length are caught near their hatching sites. However, the location of successful spawning sites varied largely between years, with the main hatching sites situated in the Strelasund and the eastern entrance of the lagoon. This may reflect variations in spawning-site selection or quality. A better knowledge of the locations and relative importance of, and the processes occurring on, the different spawning sites will provide an important contribution to the sustainable management of this commercially valuable herring stock.
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1054-3139 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1136
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Auteur Louati, H.; Ben Said, O.; Soltani, A.; Cravo-Laureau, C.; Preud'Homme, H.; Duran, R.; Aissa, P.; Mahmoudi, E.; Pringault, O.
Titre (up) Impacts of bioremediation schemes for the mitigation of a low-dose anthracene contamination on free-living marine benthic nematodes Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecotoxicology
Volume 23 Numéro 2 Pages 201-212
Mots-Clés Anthracene; Bioremediation; Community structure; Free-living nematodes; Meiofauna; bacteria; biodegradation; bizerte lagoon; degrading; laboratory microcosm experiment; microcosm experiment; oil-spills; photoinduced toxicity; polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons; sediments
Résumé A microcosm experiment was used to examine (1) the effects of different bioremediation schemes on degradation of anthracene and the structure of free-living marine nematodes in a lightly contaminated (4.5 mu g g(-1)) sediment from Bizerte lagoon and (2) the responses of the nematode community upon an artificial spiking of a low dose anthracene (1 mu g g(-1)). For that purpose sediment microcosms were incubated in laboratory for 40 days. Bioremediation techniques decreased the anthracene contamination, and interestingly, biodegradation were more efficient when anthracene was artificial supplied into the sediment suggesting that the addition of bioavailable anthracene stimulated the bacterial community to adjust towards a PAH-degrading community. Spiking with this low dose of anthracene provoked significant changes in the nematode community structure and abundance, with the elimination of specific species such as Mesacanthion diplechma, the decrease of the dominant species Oncholaimus campylocercoides and the increase in abundance of opportunistic species such as Spirinia parasitifera. This would suggest a low tolerance of the nematode community despite the presence of a weak anthracene contamination in the sediment that could have allow dominance of an anthracene tolerant nematode species. Anthracene toxicity was alleviated in biostimulation treatments, leading to a strong increase in nematode abundance, concomitantly with changes in the nematode community structure; Prochromadorella neapolitana became the most abundant species.
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0963-9292 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 657
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