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Auteur Zupan, L.; Cabeza, M.; Maiorano, L.; Roquet, C.; Devictor, V.; Lavergne, S.; Mouillot, D.; Mouquet, N.; Renaud, J.; Thuiller, W.
Titre Spatial mismatch of phylogenetic diversity across three vertebrate groups and protected areas in Europe Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Diversity and Distributions
Volume 20 Numéro 6 Pages 674-685
Mots-Clés Europe; Species diversity; approach; biodiversity; climate-change; communities; ecological; evolutionary diversity; functional diversity; global patterns; hotspots; nature conservation; phylogenetic diversity; protected areas; spatial biodiversity congruence; species richness; terrestrial vertebrates; unified
Résumé Aim We investigate patterns of phylogenetic diversity in relation to species diversity for European birds, mammals and amphibians to evaluate their congruence and highlight areas of particular evolutionary history. We estimate the extent to which the European network of protected areas (PAs) network retains interesting evolutionary history areas for the three groups separately and simultaneously. Location Europe Methods Phylogenetic (QE(PD)) and species diversity (SD) were estimated using the Rao's quadratic entropy at 10 ' resolution. We determined the regional relationship between QE(PD) and SD for each taxa with a spatial regression model and used the tails of the residuals (QE(RES)) distribution to identify areas of higher and lower QE(PD) than predicted. Spatial congruence of biodiversity between groups was assessed with Pearson correlation coefficient. A simple classification scheme allowed building a convergence map where a convergent pixel equalled to a QE(RES) value of the same sign for the three groups. This convergence map was overlaid to the current PAs network to estimate the level of protection in convergent pixels and compared it to a null expectation built on 1000 randomization of PAs over the landscape. Results QE(RES) patterns across vertebrates show a strong spatial mismatch highlighting different evolutionary histories. Convergent areas represent only 2.7% of the Western Palearctic, with only 8.4% of these areas being covered by the current PAs network while a random distribution would retain 10.4% of them. QE(RES) are unequally represented within PAs: areas with higher QE(PD) than predicted are better covered than expected, while low QE(PD) areas are undersampled. Main conclusions Patterns of diversity strongly diverge between groups of vertebrates in Europe. Although Europe has the world's most extensive PAs network, evolutionary history of terrestrial vertebrates is unequally protected. The challenge is now to reconcile effective conservation planning with a contemporary view of biodiversity integrating multiple facets.
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Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection (up) Edition
ISSN 1366-9516 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 856
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Auteur Clavier, J.; Chauvaud, L.; Amice, E.; Lazure, P.; van der Geest, M.; Labrosse, P.; Diagne, A.; Carlier, A.; Chauvaud, S.
Titre Benthic metabolism in shallow coastal ecosystems of the Banc d’Arguin, Mauritania Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Ecology Progress Series
Volume 501 Numéro Pages 11-23
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Auteur institutionnel Thèse
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection (up) Edition
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ 1236 collection 1368
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Auteur Killen, S.S.; Marras, S.; McKenzie, D.J.
Titre Fast growers sprint slower: effects of food deprivation and re-feeding on sprint swimming performance in individual juvenile European sea bass Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Experimental Biology
Volume 217 Numéro 6 Pages 859-865
Mots-Clés Compensatory growth; Ecophysiology; Food deprivation; Foraging; Locomotion; atlantic; catch-up growth; cod; dicentrarchus-labrax; ecological performance; gadus-morhua; long-term starvation; metabolic responses; salmon; teleost fish; trade-off; trade-offs; trout oncorhynchus-mykiss
Résumé While many ectothermic species can withstand prolonged fasting without mortality, food deprivation may have sublethal effects of ecological importance, including reductions in locomotor ability. Little is known about how such changes in performance in individual animals are related to either mass loss during food deprivation or growth rate during re-feeding. This study followed changes in the maximum sprint swimming performance of individual European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, throughout 45 days of food deprivation and 30 days of re-feeding. Maximum sprint speed did not show a significant decline until 45 days of food deprivation. Among individuals, the reduction in sprinting speed at this time was not related to mass loss. After 30 days of re-feeding, mean sprinting speed had recovered to match that of control fish. Among individuals, however, maximum sprinting speed was negatively correlated with growth rate after the resumption of feeding. This suggests that the rapid compensatory growth that occurs during re-feeding after a prolonged fast carries a physiological cost in terms of reduced sprinting capacity, the extent of which shows continuous variation among individuals in relation to growth rate. The long-term repeatability of maximum sprint speed was low when fish were fasted or fed a maintenance ration, but was high among control fish fed to satiation. Fish that had been previously food deprived continued to show low repeatability in sprinting ability even after the initiation of ad libitum feeding, probably stemming from variation in compensatory growth among individuals and its associated negative effects on sprinting ability. Together, these results suggest that food limitation can disrupt hierarchies of maximum sprint performance within populations. In the wild, the cumulative effects on locomotor capacity of fasting and re-feeding could lead to variable survival among individuals with different growth trajectories following a period of food deprivation.
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Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection (up) Edition
ISSN 0022-0949 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 601
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Auteur Jeanmougin, M.; Leprieur, F.; Lois, G.; Clergeau, P.
Titre Fine-scale urbanization affects Odonata species diversity in ponds of a megacity (Paris, France) Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Acta Oecologica-International Journal of Ecology
Volume 59 Numéro Pages 26-34
Mots-Clés Evenness; Landscape composition; Model averaging; Ponds; Species diversity; Urban ecology; agricultural landscape; comparative biodiversity; conservation; dragonflies odonata; ecology; fresh-water habitat; patterns; richness; selection; urban
Résumé Current developments in urban ecology include very few studies focused on pond ecosystems, though ponds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots. Using Odonata as an indicator model, we explored changes in species composition in ponds localized along an urban gradient of a megacity (Paris, France). We then assessed the relative importance of local- and landscape-scale variables in shaping Odonata alpha-diversity patterns using a model-averaging approach. Analyses were performed for adult (A) and adult plus exuviae (AE) census data. At 26 ponds, we recorded 657 adults and 815 exuviae belonging to 17 Odonata species. The results showed that the Odonata species assemblage composition was not determined by pond localization along the urban gradient. Similarly, pond characteristics were found to be similar among urban, suburban and periurban ponds. The analyses of AE census data revealed that fine-scale urbanization (i.e., increased density of buildings surrounding ponds) negatively affects Odonata alpha-diversity. In contrast, pond localization along the urban gradient weakly explained the alpha-diversity patterns. Several local-scale variables, such as the coverage of submerged macrophytes, were found to be significant drivers of Odonata alpha-diversity. Together, these results show that the degree of urbanization around ponds must be considered instead of pond localization along the urban gradient when assessing the potential impacts of urbanization on Odonata species diversity This work also indicates the importance of exuviae sampling in understanding the response of Odonata to urbanization. (C) 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
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Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection (up) Edition
ISSN 1146-609x ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 602
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Auteur Bourjea, J.; Clermont, S.; Delgado, A.; Murua, H.; Ruiz, J.; Ciccione, S.; Chavance, P.
Titre Marine turtle interaction with purse-seine fishery in the Atlantic and Indian oceans: Lessons for management Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Biological Conservation
Volume 178 Numéro Pages 74-87
Mots-Clés Atlantic Ocean; Bycatch; Fishery impacts; fishery management; Indian Ocean; Marine turtle
Résumé Bycatch of endangered marine turtles is a growing issue for the management of all fisheries, including the oceanic purse-seine fishery. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial and temporal variation in bycatch rates of these species in the entire European purse-seine fishery operating in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. The study was based on data collected through observer programs from 1995 to 2011. During that period, a total of 15 913 fishing sets were observed, including 6 515 on Drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (DFADs) and 9 398 on free swimming schools, representing a global coverage of 10.3% and 5.1% of the total fishing activity in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean, respectively. Moreover, from 2003 to 2011, 14 124 specific observations were carried out on DFADs to check turtle entanglement in the net covering DFADs. We found that the purse-seine fishery has a very low impact on marine turtles. We estimated that the annual number of individuals incidentally captured was 218 (SD = 150) and 250 (SD = 157) in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean, respectively, with more than 75% being released alive. The present study also investigated the impact of DFADs; which is considered a key conservation issue for this fishery. Drifting objects may play a key role in aggregating juveniles of marine turtles, implying the need for improving their construction to avoid entanglement (e.g. avoiding nets in the structure); however, based on our study it is not the main source of incidental captures of marine turtles in this fishery.
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Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection (up) Edition
ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 349
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