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Auteur Lefevre, S.; Domenici, P.; McKenzie, D.J.
Titre Swimming in air-breathing fishes Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Fish Biology
Volume 84 Numéro 3 Pages 661-681
Mots-Clés acid-base; aerobic metabolism; amia-calva; bimodal respiration; dicentrarchus-labrax; european sea-bass; exercise; exhaustive exercise; gar lepisosteus-platyrhincus; megalops-cyprinoides; pacific; partitioning; rainbow-trout; recovery; respiratory; tarpon; trout oncorhynchus-mykiss
Résumé Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise.
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Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0022-1112 ISBN Médium
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Auteur Zupan, L.; Cabeza, M.; Maiorano, L.; Roquet, C.; Devictor, V.; Lavergne, S.; Mouillot, D.; Mouquet, N.; Renaud, J.; Thuiller, W.
Titre Spatial mismatch of phylogenetic diversity across three vertebrate groups and protected areas in Europe Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Diversity and Distributions
Volume 20 Numéro 6 Pages 674-685
Mots-Clés Europe; Species diversity; approach; biodiversity; climate-change; communities; ecological; evolutionary diversity; functional diversity; global patterns; hotspots; nature conservation; phylogenetic diversity; protected areas; spatial biodiversity congruence; species richness; terrestrial vertebrates; unified
Résumé Aim We investigate patterns of phylogenetic diversity in relation to species diversity for European birds, mammals and amphibians to evaluate their congruence and highlight areas of particular evolutionary history. We estimate the extent to which the European network of protected areas (PAs) network retains interesting evolutionary history areas for the three groups separately and simultaneously. Location Europe Methods Phylogenetic (QE(PD)) and species diversity (SD) were estimated using the Rao's quadratic entropy at 10 ' resolution. We determined the regional relationship between QE(PD) and SD for each taxa with a spatial regression model and used the tails of the residuals (QE(RES)) distribution to identify areas of higher and lower QE(PD) than predicted. Spatial congruence of biodiversity between groups was assessed with Pearson correlation coefficient. A simple classification scheme allowed building a convergence map where a convergent pixel equalled to a QE(RES) value of the same sign for the three groups. This convergence map was overlaid to the current PAs network to estimate the level of protection in convergent pixels and compared it to a null expectation built on 1000 randomization of PAs over the landscape. Results QE(RES) patterns across vertebrates show a strong spatial mismatch highlighting different evolutionary histories. Convergent areas represent only 2.7% of the Western Palearctic, with only 8.4% of these areas being covered by the current PAs network while a random distribution would retain 10.4% of them. QE(RES) are unequally represented within PAs: areas with higher QE(PD) than predicted are better covered than expected, while low QE(PD) areas are undersampled. Main conclusions Patterns of diversity strongly diverge between groups of vertebrates in Europe. Although Europe has the world's most extensive PAs network, evolutionary history of terrestrial vertebrates is unequally protected. The challenge is now to reconcile effective conservation planning with a contemporary view of biodiversity integrating multiple facets.
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Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1366-9516 ISBN Médium
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Auteur Chu, Y.; Tournoud, M.G.; Salles, C.; Got, P.; Perrin, J.L.; Rodier, C.; Caro, A.; Troussellier, M.
Titre Spatial and temporal dynamics of bacterial contamination in South France coastal rivers: focus on in-stream processes during low flows and floods Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Hydrological Processes
Volume 28 Numéro 8 Pages 3300-3313
Mots-Clés Coliforms and streptococci; Mediterranean rivers; faecal indicator loads; flush effect; point sources; riverbed sediment abundance
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ISSN 0885-6087 ISBN Médium
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Auteur Delzor, A.; Couratier, P.; Boumédiène, F.; Nicol, M.; Druet-Cabanac, M.; Paraf, F.; Méjean, A.; Ploux, O.; Leleu, J.-P.; Brient, L.; Lengronne, M.; Pichon, V.; Combès, A.; El Abdellaoui, S.; Bonneterre, V.; Lagrange, E.; Besson, G.; Bicout, D.J.; Boutonnat, J.; Camu, W.; Pageot, N.; Juntas-Morales, R.; Rigau, V.; Masseret, E.; Abadie, E.; Preux, P.-M.; Marin, B.
Titre Searching for a link between the L-BMAA neurotoxin and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study protocol of the French BMAALS programme Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée BMJ Open
Volume 4 Numéro 8 Pages
Mots-Clés
Résumé Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neurone disease. It occurs in two forms: (1) familial cases, for which several genes have been identified and (2) sporadic cases, for which various hypotheses have been formulated. Notably, the β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) toxin has been postulated to be involved in the occurrence of sporadic ALS. The objective of the French BMAALS programme is to study the putative link between L-BMAA and ALS.Methods and analysis The programme covers the period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2011. Using multiple sources of ascertainment, all the incident ALS cases diagnosed during this period in the area under study (10 counties spread over three French regions) were collected. First, the standardised incidence ratio will be calculated for each municipality under concern. Then, by applying spatial clustering techniques, overincidence and underincidence zones of ALS will be sought. A case–control study, in the subpopulation living in the identified areas, will gather information about patients’ occupations, leisure activities and lifestyle habits in order to assess potential risk factors to which they are or have been exposed. Specimens of drinking water, food and biological material (brain tissue) will be examined to assess the presence of L-BMAA in the environment and tissues of ALS cases and controls.Ethics and dissemination The study has been reviewed and approved by the French ethical committee of the CPP SOOM IV (Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud-Ouest & Outre-Mer IV). The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences.
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Auteur Pellissier, L.; Leprieur, F.; Parravicini, V.; Cowman, P.F.; Kulbicki, M.; Litsios, G.; Olsen, S.M.; Wisz, M.S.; Bellwood, D.R.; Mouillot, D.
Titre Quaternary coral reef refugia preserved fish diversity Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Science
Volume 344 Numéro 6187 Pages 1016-1019
Mots-Clés abundance; areas; assembly rules; cradles; global patterns; gradient; hotspots; marine biodiversity; museums; species richness
Résumé The most prominent pattern in global marine biogeography is the biodiversity peak in the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Yet the processes that underpin this pattern are still actively debated. By reconstructing global marine paleoenvironments over the past 3 million years on the basis of sediment cores, we assessed the extent to which Quaternary climate fluctuations can explain global variation in current reef fish richness. Comparing global historical coral reef habitat availability with the present-day distribution of 6316 reef fish species, we find that distance from stable coral reef habitats during historical periods of habitat loss explains 62% of the variation in fish richness, outweighing present-day environmental factors. Our results highlight the importance of habitat persistence during periods of climate change for preserving marine biodiversity.
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Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection (down) 801
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