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Auteur Merino, G.; Barange, M.; Fernandes, J.A.; Mullon, C.; Cheung, W.; Trenkel, V.; Lam, V. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Estimating the economic loss of recent North Atlantic fisheries management Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Progress in Oceanography  
  Volume Numéro Pages 314-323  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé It is accepted that world’s fisheries are not generally exploited at their biological or their economic optimum. Most fisheries assessments focus on the biological capacity of fish stocks to respond to harvesting and few have attempted to estimate the economic efficiency at which ecosystems are exploited. The latter is important as fisheries contribute considerably to the economic development of many coastal communities. Here we estimate the overall potential economic rent for the fishing industry in the North Atlantic to be B€ 12.85, compared to current estimated profits of B€ 0.63. The difference between the potential and the net profits obtained from North Atlantic fisheries is therefore B€ 12.22. In order to increase the profits of North Atlantic fisheries to a maximum, total fish biomass would have to be rebuilt to 108 Mt (2.4 times more than present) by reducing current total fishing effort by 53%. Stochastic simulations were undertaken to estimate the uncertainty associated with the aggregate bioeconomic model that we use and we estimate the economic loss NA fisheries in a range of 2.5 and 32 billion of euro. We provide economic justification for maintaining or restoring fish stocks to above their MSY biomass levels. Our conclusions are consistent with similar global scale studies.  
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  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection North Atlantic Ecosystems, the role of climate and anthropogenic forcing on their structure and function Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection 129, Part B Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0079-6611 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection (down) 1200  
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Auteur Kaplan, D.; Chassot, E.; Amande, J.M.; Dueri, S.; Demarcq, H.; Dagorn, L.; Fonteneau, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Spatial management of Indian Ocean tropical tuna fisheries: potential and perspectives Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Ices Journal of Marine Science  
  Volume 71 Numéro 7 Pages 1728-1749  
  Mots-Clés Bycatch; conservation; Indian Ocean; Marine protected areas (MPAs); pelagic; spatial management of fisheries; tropical tuna fisheries  
  Résumé Effective use of spatial management in the pelagic realm presents special challenges due to high fish and fisher mobility, limited knowledge and significant governance challenges. The tropical Indian Ocean provides an ideal case study for testing our ability to apply existing data sources to assessing impacts of spatial management on tuna fisheries because of several recent controversial spatial closures. We review the scientific underpinnings of pelagic MPA effects, spatio-temporal patterns of Indian Ocean tuna catch, by catch and fish movements, and the consequences of these for the efficacy of spatial management for Indian Ocean tropical tuna fisheries. The tropical Indian Ocean is characterized by strong environmental fluctuations, regular seasonal variability in catch, large observed tuna displacement distances, relatively uniform catch-per-unit-effort and bycatch rates over space, and high fisher mobility, all of which suggest significant variability and movement in tropical tuna fisheries that are simply not well adapted to static spatial closures. One possible exception to this overall conclusion would be a large time/area closure east of Somalia. If closed for a significant fraction of the year it could reduce purse-seine bycatch and juvenile tuna catch. Dynamic closures following fish migratory patterns are possible, but more focused information on fish movements will be needed for effective implementation. Fortunately, several recent improvements in conventional fishery management and reporting will likely enhance our ability to evaluate spatial and non-spatial management options in the near future, particularly as pertaining to bycatch species.  
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  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1054-3139 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection (down) 1199  
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Auteur Ecoutin, J.-M.; Simier, M.; Albaret, J.-J.; Laë, R.; Raffray, J.; Sadio, O.; Tito de Morais, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Ecological field experiment of short-term effects of fishing ban on fish assemblages in a tropical estuarine MPA Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Ocean & Coastal Management  
  Volume 100 Numéro Pages 74-85  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), in addition to their important role in the conservation of critical habitats and vulnerable species, are now also used in a context of ecosystem-based fisheries management. The aim of this study was to assess the observed changes in the fish population structure in the years following a fishing ban. The experiment took place in the Bamboung bolong, a small bay in the Sine Saloum estuary in Senegal, West Africa. The protection of this zone was undertaken with local fishermen support, and a formal MPA was created in 2004. The survey of the fish assemblages was initiated in 2003, the year before the fishing ban, and went on until 2007, with 12 sampling sites being monitored three times per year. In this paper, we describe and analyze the evolution of the fish assemblage during this five years' experimental period. Some changes have been highlighted on which the effect of the fishing ban was shown. After the fishing ban, an increase of total biomass and of maximal fish length has been registered. In the same time, the number of species has increased and the percentage of large and/or iconic species targeted by fishing has also increased. The community structure has been modified, with more small fish, more big fish (new large species and more large individuals in the original species) and fewer medium sized fish. The contribution of marine affinity species has increased in depend of the estuarine part of the assemblage. Finally, the trophic structure has been modified with an overall increase of the mean trophic level, resulting from an increase of the percentage of generalist or piscivorous predators and a sharp decrease of herbivorous and detritivorous low trophic level species. Marine predators which numbers and size were reduced by fisheries are again important components of the system. We argue that despite the intrinsic variability of the tropical estuarine environments, the introduction of a total ban on fishing in such estuarine zones can substantially improve the health status of the fish assemblage.  
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  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0964-5691 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection (down) 1198  
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Auteur Colléter, M.; Gascuel, D.; Albouy, C.; Francour, P.; Tito de Morais, L.; Valls, A.; Le Loc'h, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Fishing inside or outside? A case studies analysis of potential spillover effect from marine protected areas, using food web models Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Marine Systems  
  Volume 139 Numéro Pages 383-395  
  Mots-Clés Biomass exports; Ecopath; EcoTroph; Fishing impact; food web model; Marine protected area (MPA)  
  Résumé Marine protected areas (MPAs) are implemented worldwide as an efficient tool to preserve biodiversity and protect ecosystems. We used food web models (Ecopath and EcoTroph) to assess the ability of MPAs to reduce fishing impacts on targeted resources and to provide biomass exports for adjacent fisheries. Three coastal MPAs: Bonifacio and Port-Cros (Mediterranean Sea), and Bamboung (Senegalese coast), were used as case studies. Pre-existing related Ecopath models were homogenized and ecosystem characteristics were compared based on network indices and trophic spectra analyses. Using the EcoTroph model, we simulated different fishing mortality scenarios and assessed fishing impacts on the three ecosystems. Lastly, the potential biomass that could be exported from each MPA was estimated. Despite structural and functional trophic differences, the three MPAs showed similar patterns of resistance to simulated fishing mortalities, with the Bonifacio case study exhibiting the highest potential catches and a slightly inferior resistance to fishing. We also show that the potential exports from our small size MPAs are limited and thus may only benefit local fishing activities. Based on simulations, their potential exports were estimated to be at the same order of magnitude as the amount of catch that could have been obtained inside the reserve. In Port Cros, the ban of fishing inside MPA could actually allow for improved catch yields outside the MPA due to biomass exports. This was not the case for the Bonifacio site, as its potential exports were too low to offset catch losses. This insight suggests the need for MPA networks and/or sufficiently large MPAs to effectively protect juveniles and adults and provide important exports. Finally, we discuss the effects of MPAs on fisheries that were not considered in food web models, and conclude by suggesting possible improvements in the analysis of MPA efficiency.  
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  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0924-7963 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection (down) 1197  
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Auteur Christensen, V.; Coll, M.; Steenbeek, J.; Buszowski, J.; Chagaris, D.; Walters, C.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Representing Variable Habitat Quality in a Spatial Food Web Model Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecosystems  
  Volume 17 Numéro 8 Pages 1397-1412  
  Mots-Clés Ecology; Ecopath; ecospace; Environmental Management; food web model; foraging capacity model; Geoecology/Natural Processes; habitat modeling; Hydrology/Water Resources; Plant Sciences; sampling; simulation model; species distribution model; Zoology  
  Résumé Why are marine species where they are? The scientific community is faced with an urgent need to understand aquatic ecosystem dynamics in the context of global change. This requires development of scientific tools with the capability to predict how biodiversity, natural resources, and ecosystem services will change in response to stressors such as climate change and further expansion of fishing. Species distribution models and ecosystem models are two methodologies that are being developed to further this understanding. To date, these methodologies offer limited capabilities to work jointly to produce integrated assessments that take both food web dynamics and spatial-temporal environmental variability into account. We here present a new habitat capacity model as an implementation of the spatial-temporal model Ecospace of the Ecopath with Ecosim approach. The new model offers the ability to drive foraging capacity of species from the cumulative impacts of multiple physical, oceanographic, and environmental factors such as depth, bottom type, temperature, salinity, oxygen concentrations, and so on. We use a simulation modeling procedure to evaluate sampling characteristics of the new habitat capacity model. This development bridges the gap between envelope environmental models and classic ecosystem food web models, progressing toward the ability to predict changes in marine ecosystems under scenarios of global change and explicitly taking food web direct and indirect interactions into account.  
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  Langue en Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1432-9840, 1435-0629 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection (down) 1196  
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