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Auteur Anderson, P.S.L.; Claverie, T.; Patek, S.N.
Titre Levers And Linkages: Mechanical Trade-Offs In A Power-Amplified System Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Evolution
Volume 68 Numéro 7 Pages 1919-1933
Mots-Clés amplification; Biomechanics; comparative methods; evolution; kinematic transmission; labrid fishes; mantis shrimp; modularity; morphology; phylogenetic; stomatopods; strike; trade-offs
Résumé Mechanical redundancy within a biomechanical system (e. g., many-to-one mapping) allows morphologically divergent organisms to maintain equivalent mechanical outputs. However, most organisms depend on the integration of more than one biomechanical system. Here, we test whether coupled mechanical systems follow a pattern of amplification (mechanical changes are congruent and evolve toward the same functional extreme) or independence (mechanisms evolve independently). We examined the correlated evolution and evolutionary pathways of the coupled four-bar linkage and lever systems in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) ultrafast raptorial appendages. We examined models of character evolution in the framework of two divergent groups of stomatopods-“smashers” (hammer-shaped appendages) and “spearers” (bladed appendages). Smashers tended to evolve toward force amplification, whereas spearers evolved toward displacement amplification. These findings show that coupled biomechanical systems can evolve synergistically, thereby resulting in functional amplification rather than mechanical redundancy.
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ISSN 0014-3820 ISBN Médium
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Notes <p>ISI Document Delivery No.: AL3TK<br/>Times Cited: 1<br/>Cited Reference Count: 40<br/>Anderson, Philip S. L. Claverie, Thomas Patek, S. N.<br/>National Science Foundation [IOS-1149748]<br/>The authors would like to thank S. Price for extensive assistance on phylogenetic comparative methods and L. Revell for help and advice for using his Phytools package for R. We would also like to thank M. Porter, M. Rosario, P. Green, S. Cox, and K. Kagaya for helpful discussions on stomatopod biology as well as two anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments, which have greatly improved the quality of this article. We also thank K. Reed (National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC) and S. Keable (Australian Museum of Natural History, Sydney) for access to their specimen collections. This work was funded by the National Science Foundation (IOS-1149748) to SNP. The authors declare no conflict of interest.<br/>Wiley-blackwell<br/>Hoboken</p> Approuvé pas de
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Auteur Louw, G.G.; Freon, P.; Huse, G.; Lipinski, M.R.; Coetzee, J.C.
Titre Pelagic fish species assemblages in the southern Benguela Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée African Journal of Marine Science
Volume 36 Numéro 1 Pages 69-84
Mots-Clés Engraulis encrasicolus (= E. capensis); Etrumeus whiteheadi; meeting; mixed shoals; oddity effect; pelagic assemblages; point hypothesis; Sardinops sagax; school trap hypothesis; Trachurus capensis
Résumé Patterns in the co-occurrence of small pelagic fish species within single shoals were investigated using data from 6 814 throws of commercial purse-seiners in South Africa. Assuming that the throw composition reflected the true composition of the assemblage, it was shown that: (1) mixed pelagic assemblages were as prevalent as pure shoals; (2) assemblages of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardinops sagax exhibited a seasonal distribution pattern; (3) there was a highly skewed species ratio in terms of abundance by mass; and (4) patterns in the size distributions of two-species shoals were complex and dependent on the L. and the relative abundance of the species concerned. We hypothesise that the observed patterns reflect the 'net gain of the subordinate', whereby fish occurring in small numbers are less conspicuous and/or less energetically attractive for potential predators if they are smaller than the dominant component of the school. If the subordinate fish grow larger than the dominant fish, this advantage persists. Potential sources of bias are alluded to but are not considered to have had a major impact on the conclusions reached, although they may form the basis for further work.
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Auteur Langlois, J.; Freon, P.; Delgenes, J.P.; Steyer, J.P.; Helias, A.
Titre New methods for impact assessment of biotic-resource depletion in life cycle assessment of fisheries : theory and application Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Cleaner Production
Volume 73 Numéro Pages 63-71
Mots-Clés Biotic resource depletion; fisheries; Maximum; Net primary production; sustainable yield
Résumé It is difficult to address all of the direct environmental impacts of fisheries using conventional methods of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A methodological framework was developed that calculates regionalised characterisation factors for biomass uptake by fishing activities to assess impacts of biotic-resource depletion at both species and ecosystem levels. These two levels were studied to include effects of catch on the collapse of a particular stock of a given species and on total biomass availability in oceans. Characterisation factors were calculated for 127 fish species and 88 marine provinces. The compatibility of this method with other frameworks is discussed, as well as the methodological limitations. The method was applied to two contrasting examples from fisheries (Northern Atlantic albacore tuna and Northern Argentine anchovy). The impacts of one tonne of tuna on biotic natural resources were 4 and 14 times as high as those of anchovy at the ecosystem and species levels, respectively. The application demonstrates that the method is relevant, as it addresses a topic of global interest and fills a gap in LCA impact assessment to contrast impacts of removals of different fish species in terms of biotic natural resource depletion.
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ISSN 0959-6526 ISBN Médium
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Auteur Freon, P.; Sueiro, J.C.; Iriarte, F.; Evar, O.F.M.; Landa, Y.; Mittaine, J.F.; Bouchon, M.
Titre Harvesting for food versus feed : a review of Peruvian fisheries in a global context Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries
Volume 24 Numéro 1 Pages 381-398
Mots-Clés Feed fish; Fisheries management; Food security; Politico-socio-economic processes; Seafood; Sustainable development
Résumé Peru is the top exporter of fishmeal and fish oil (FMFO) worldwide and is responsible for half and a third of global production, respectively. Landings of “anchoveta” (Engraulis ringens) are used nearly exclusively for FMFO production, despite a proactive national food policy aimed at favoring the direct human consumption of this inexpensive species. It may be surprising that in a country where malnutrition and caloric deficit constitute major issues, a low-priced and highly nutritious fish such as anchovy does not have stronger domestic demand as a food fish. Here, we review and assess eight potential politico-socio-economic processes that can explain this situation. The main explanation are dietary habits, the preference for broiler and the higher profit from anchovy sold as feed fish compared to its use as a food fish due to historically high FMFO prices, boosted by an increasing demand for aquaculture in a context of finite forage and trash fish resources. In addition, the recent introduction of an individual quota system has shifted bargaining power from processors to fishers, thereby increasing competition for the raw material. This competition results in an increase in anchovy prices offered by the feed fish industry due to its onshore processing overcapacity, which is detrimental to the food fish industry. In the end, although the dominant use of anchovy for fish feed is largely explained by integrating these market mechanisms and other minor ones, this use raises other issues, such as rent redistribution through public policies, employment, equitability and utility (low social costs), and resource management (threats to ecosystems or global change). Different policy scenarios are proposed in relation to these issues.
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ISSN 0960-3166 ISBN Médium
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Auteur Freon, P.; Avadi, A.; Soto, W.M.; Negron, R.
Titre Environmentally extended comparison table of large-versus small- and medium-scale fisheries : the case of the Peruvian anchoveta fleet Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Volume 71 Numéro 10 Pages 1459-1474
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Résumé Literature on small-scale fisheries usually depicts them as preferable over large-scale-industrial fisheries regarding societal benefits (jobs, jobs per investment) and relative fuel efficiency (e. g., Thomson 1980). We propose an environmentally extended Thomson table for comparing the Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) fleets of purse seiners, backed up by methodological information and augmented with life cycle assessment (LCA)-based environmental performance information, as a more comprehensive device for comparing fleets competing for the same resource pool. Findings from LCA and a previous study on the anchoveta steel fleet together allowed characterizing the whole Peruvian anchoveta fishery. These results, along with socioeconomic indicators, are used to build an environmentally extended Thomson table of the fleet's main segments: the steel industrial, the wooden industrial, and the wooden small-and medium-scale (SMS) fleets. In contrast with the world figure, the Peruvian SMS fleets show a fuel performance nearly two times worse than the industrial fleets, due to economies of scale of the latter (although the small-scale segment itself (<10 m(3)) performs similarly to the industrial steel fleet). Furthermore, the absolute number of jobs provided by the industrial fisheries is much larger in Peru than those provided by the SMS fisheries. This is due to the relatively larger development of the industrial fishery, but as in previous studies, the SMS fleets generate more employment per tonne landed than the industrial fleet, as well as more food fish and less discards at sea.
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