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Auteur BRIND'AMOUR, A.; LAFFARGUE, P.; MORIN, J.; VAZ, S.; FOVEAU, A.; LE BRIS, H. url  openurl
  Titre Morphospecies and taxonomic sufficiency of benthic megafauna in scientific bottom trawl surveys Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Continental Shelf Research  
  Volume 72 Numéro Pages 1-9  
  Mots-Clés Bay of Biscay; Benthic descriptor; Bottom trawl surveys; English Channel; North sea; Taxonomic sufficiency  
  Résumé Scientific fisheries surveys routinely identify a large diversity of commercial and non-commercial benthic megainvertebrates that could provide useful information for Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) descriptors. Species is obviously the basic taxonomic level to which most ecological studies and theories refer. Identification at this level of organization is indeed always preferred over any other taxonomic level. Nevertheless, aggregation of species to higher taxonomic levels may be unavoidable sometimes, since errors of identification are known or suspected to occur in many surveys. Using analyses of taxonomic sufficiency (identification of organisms at various taxonomic resolutions) and groups of morphospecies (taxa identified easily by non-experts on the basis of evident morphological traits), this study aims to quantify the loss of ecological information incurred by partial identification of benthic megafauna in bottom trawl surveys in order to put such data to good use. The analyses were conducted on five scientific surveys representing a large range of geographical areas (from 150 km2 to 150 000 km2) and environmental conditions. Results show that genus, family and, particularly, morphospecies are good surrogates for species identification in community analyses. We suggest that bottom trawl surveys can provide reliable megafauna data that may usefully complete those obtained by grab surveys. The use of morphospecies could lead to new strategies, combining different datasets to provide indicators for MSFD descriptors (e.g. D6).  
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  ISSN 0278-4343 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1141  
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Auteur CASINI, M.; ROUYER, T.; BARTOLINO, V.; LARSON, N.; GRYGIEL, W. url  openurl
  Titre Density-Dependence in Space and Time: Opposite Synchronous Variations in Population Distribution and Body Condition in the Baltic Sea Sprat (Sprattus sprattus) over Three Decades Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Plos One  
  Volume 9 Numéro 4 Pages  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé Spatio-temporal density-dependent processes are crucial regulatory factors for natural populations. However, there is a lack of studies addressing spatial density-dependence in fish growth. A previous investigation has suggested spatio-temporal density-dependence in body condition of Baltic sprat. Here, we used different techniques, such as centre of gravity, distance, and homogeneity indices, to better characterize the spatial and temporal variations in sprat density and body condition in the Baltic Proper. Our results evidenced a negative spatio-temporal co-variation between the centres of gravity of density and maximum condition. In the 1980s-early 1990s both centres were located in the middle of the Baltic Proper. From the mid 1990s the centres progressively separated in space, as the sprat population moved towards the north-eastern Baltic Proper, and the centre of maximum condition towards the south-western areas. Moreover, at low abundances, sprat density and condition were homogeneously distributed in space, whereas at high abundances both density and condition showed pronounced geographical gradients. The ecological processes potentially explaining the observed patterns were discussed in the light of the Ideal Free Distribution theory. We provide evidence that the shift in the spatial distribution of cod, the main predator of sprat, has been the main factor triggering the overall spatial changes in sprat density, and thus condition, during the past thirty years. The spatial indices shown here, synthesizing the spatio-temporal patterns of fish distribution, can support the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive.  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 374  
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Auteur Le Pape, O.; DELAVENNE, J.; VAZ, S. url  openurl
  Titre Quantitative mapping of fish habitat: A useful tool to design spatialised management measures and marine protected area with fishery objectives Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Ocean & Coastal Management  
  Volume 87 Numéro Pages 8-19  
  Mots-Clés  
  Résumé The delineation of essential fish habitats is necessary to identify, design and prioritize efficient marine protected area (MPA) networks with fishery objectives, capable, in addition to other possible objectives and functions of MPAs, of sustaining the renewal of marine living resources. Both the methods available to map essential fish habitats and the usefulness of these maps are discussed in this paper. Generally, the first step to obtain maps of essential fish habitats consists in choosing one of the numerous existing statistical approaches to build robust habitat suitability models linking relevant descriptors of the marine environment to the spatial distribution of fish presence or density. When these descriptors are exhaustively known, i.e. maps are available for each of them, geo-referenced predictions from these models and their related uncertainty may be imported into Geographic Information Systems for the quantitative identification and characterization of key sites for the marine living resources. The second part of this paper deals with the usefulness of such quantitative maps for management purposes. These maps allow for the quantitative identification of the different habitats that are required for these marine resources to complete their life cycles and enable to measure their respective importance for population renewal and conservation. The consequences of anthropogenic pressures – not only fishing but also land reclamation, aggregate extractions or degradation of habitat quality (e.g. nutrient excess or xenobiotics loadings, invasive species or global change) – on living resources, may also be simulated from such habitat models. These quantitative maps may serve as input in specific conservation planning software based on the systematic conservation approach. Fish habitat maps thus may help decision makers to select relevant protection areas and design coherent MPA networks which objectives are to sustain fishing resources and fisheries.  
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  ISSN 0964-5691 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 375  
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Auteur Cresson, P.; Fabri, M.-C.; Bouchoucha, M.; Brach Papa, C.; Chavanon, F.; Jadaud, A.; Knoery, J.; MARCO-MIRALLES, F.; Cossa, D. url  openurl
  Titre Mercury in organisms from the Northwestern Mediterranean slope: Importance of food sources Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Science of The Total Environment  
  Volume 497-498 Numéro Pages 229-238  
  Mots-Clés Continental slope; Depth; Sharks; Stable Isotopes; Teleosts; Trophic webs  
  Résumé Mercury (Hg) is a global threat for marine ecosystems, especially within the Mediterranean Sea. The concern is higher for deep-sea organisms, as the Hg concentration in their tissues is commonly high. To assess the influence of food supply at two trophic levels, total Hg concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in 7 species (4 teleosts, 2 sharks, and 1 crustacean) sampled on the upper part of the continental slope of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), at depths between 284 and 816 m. Mean Hg concentrations ranged from 1.30 ± 0.61 to 7.13 ± 7.09 μg g− 1 dry mass, with maximum values observed for small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula. For all species except blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, Hg concentrations were above the health safety limits for human consumption defined by the European Commission, with a variable proportion of the individuals exceeding limits (from 23% for the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus to 82% for the blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus). Measured concentrations increased with increasing trophic levels. Carbon isotopic ratios measured for these organisms demonstrated that settling phytoplanktonic organic matter is not only the main source fueling trophic webs but also the carrier of Hg to this habitat. Inter- and intraspecific variations of Hg concentrations revealed the importance of feeding patterns in Hg bioaccumulation. In addition, biological parameters, such as growth rate or bathymetric range explain the observed contamination trends.  
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  ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 376  
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Auteur Avadi, A.; Freon, P.; Quispe, I. url  doi
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  Titre Environmental assessment of Peruvian anchoveta food products : is less refined better ? Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment  
  Volume 19 Numéro 6 Pages 1276-1293  
  Mots-Clés Cold chain; Engraulis ringens; Frozen, canned and cured fish; Life cycle assessment; Peru  
  Résumé Life cycle assessments (LCAs) of various anchovy (anchoveta) direct human consumption products processed in Peru were carried out, to evaluate their relative environmental performance as alternative products to enhance nutrition of communities with low access to fish products in the country. LCA was carried out for fresh, frozen, canned, salted and cured anchoveta products, both at plant gate and featuring local and national distribution over non-refrigerated, chilled and fully refrigerated distribution chain. The functional unit used was 1 kg of fish in the final product. Results demonstrate that, in environmental terms, more-refined products (cured and canned anchoveta products) represent a much higher burden than less- refined products (fresh, frozen and salted). Although this is a likely result, the magnitude of this difference (4 to 27 times when expressed as an environmental single score) is higher than expected and had not been quantified before for salted and cured products, as far as we know. This difference is mainly due to differences in energy consumption between types of products. Furthermore, cured and salted products feature larger biotic resource use, when calculated based on the whole fish equivalent, due to higher processing losses/discards. The relevance of taking into account the different transportation and storage needs is highlighted. For those products requiring refrigerated transportation and storage, over a national distribution chain, those activities increase the overall environmental impacts of the products by 55 % (fresh chilled) to 67 % (frozen). However, such an increase does not worsen the environmental performance of fresh and frozen products in comparison to the energy-intensive canned and cured products. It is concluded that a more sustainability-oriented analysis, including the social and economic pillars of sustainability, is required towards decision-making involving promotion of either product for addressing nutritional deficiencies in Peru.  
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  ISSN 0948-3349 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1144  
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