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Auteur Le Pape, O.; DELAVENNE, J.; VAZ, S.
Titre Quantitative mapping of fish habitat: A useful tool to design spatialised management measures and marine protected area with fishery objectives Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Ocean & Coastal Management
Volume 87 Numéro (up) Pages 8-19
Mots-Clés
Résumé The delineation of essential fish habitats is necessary to identify, design and prioritize efficient marine protected area (MPA) networks with fishery objectives, capable, in addition to other possible objectives and functions of MPAs, of sustaining the renewal of marine living resources. Both the methods available to map essential fish habitats and the usefulness of these maps are discussed in this paper. Generally, the first step to obtain maps of essential fish habitats consists in choosing one of the numerous existing statistical approaches to build robust habitat suitability models linking relevant descriptors of the marine environment to the spatial distribution of fish presence or density. When these descriptors are exhaustively known, i.e. maps are available for each of them, geo-referenced predictions from these models and their related uncertainty may be imported into Geographic Information Systems for the quantitative identification and characterization of key sites for the marine living resources. The second part of this paper deals with the usefulness of such quantitative maps for management purposes. These maps allow for the quantitative identification of the different habitats that are required for these marine resources to complete their life cycles and enable to measure their respective importance for population renewal and conservation. The consequences of anthropogenic pressures – not only fishing but also land reclamation, aggregate extractions or degradation of habitat quality (e.g. nutrient excess or xenobiotics loadings, invasive species or global change) – on living resources, may also be simulated from such habitat models. These quantitative maps may serve as input in specific conservation planning software based on the systematic conservation approach. Fish habitat maps thus may help decision makers to select relevant protection areas and design coherent MPA networks which objectives are to sustain fishing resources and fisheries.
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ISSN 0964-5691 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 375
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Auteur Cresson, P.; Fabri, M.-C.; Bouchoucha, M.; Brach Papa, C.; Chavanon, F.; Jadaud, A.; Knoery, J.; MARCO-MIRALLES, F.; Cossa, D.
Titre Mercury in organisms from the Northwestern Mediterranean slope: Importance of food sources Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Science of The Total Environment
Volume 497-498 Numéro (up) Pages 229-238
Mots-Clés Continental slope; Depth; Sharks; Stable Isotopes; Teleosts; Trophic webs
Résumé Mercury (Hg) is a global threat for marine ecosystems, especially within the Mediterranean Sea. The concern is higher for deep-sea organisms, as the Hg concentration in their tissues is commonly high. To assess the influence of food supply at two trophic levels, total Hg concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in 7 species (4 teleosts, 2 sharks, and 1 crustacean) sampled on the upper part of the continental slope of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), at depths between 284 and 816 m. Mean Hg concentrations ranged from 1.30 ± 0.61 to 7.13 ± 7.09 μg g− 1 dry mass, with maximum values observed for small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula. For all species except blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, Hg concentrations were above the health safety limits for human consumption defined by the European Commission, with a variable proportion of the individuals exceeding limits (from 23% for the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus to 82% for the blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus). Measured concentrations increased with increasing trophic levels. Carbon isotopic ratios measured for these organisms demonstrated that settling phytoplanktonic organic matter is not only the main source fueling trophic webs but also the carrier of Hg to this habitat. Inter- and intraspecific variations of Hg concentrations revealed the importance of feeding patterns in Hg bioaccumulation. In addition, biological parameters, such as growth rate or bathymetric range explain the observed contamination trends.
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ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 376
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Auteur BROGGIATO, A.; ARNAUD-HAOND, S.; CHIAROLLA, C.; GREIBER, T.
Titre Fair and equitable sharing of benefits from the utilization of marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction: Bridging the gaps between science and policy Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Policy
Volume 49 Numéro (up) Pages 176-185
Mots-Clés Access and benefit-sharing; Common pool resources; Intellectual property rights; Marine genetic resources; Marine scientific research; Public domain
Résumé Marine genetic resources are a subject of a growing body of research and development activities, as demonstrated by the abundance of marine patented genes reported in GenBank. Given the lack of a comprehensive legal regime for the management of marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction, the General Assembly of the United Nations met in 2006 to discuss whether there are regulatory or governance gaps and how to address them. Besides the crystallization of the different political positions, the process is now advancing towards making a decision about whether to develop an international instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity, within which the regulation of access to genetic resources and the sharing of benefits from their utilization has emerged as an in-dissociable issue. In order to propose concrete options to be considered for the establishment of a legal framework addressing these issues, policy-makers need to better understand the feasibility, the costs and the modalities of scientific activities undertaken, together with the actual level of commercialization of new products. They also need to be aware of the already advanced practices in place within the scientific community, especially regarding sharing of non-monetary benefits. This paper particularly highlights and discusses practical scenarios to advance in the international process, based on the approaches adopted in other regional and international regimes for the management of genetic resources and on the best practices developed within the scientific community.
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ISSN 0308-597x ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 377
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Auteur Avadí, Á.; Vázquez-Rowe, I.; Freon, P.
Titre Eco-efficiency assessment of the Peruvian anchoveta steel and wooden fleets using the LCA+DEA framework Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Cleaner Production
Volume 70 Numéro (up) Pages 118-131
Mots-Clés Data envelopment analysis; Eco-efficiency; Engraulis ringens; Life cycle assessment; Peru
Résumé The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is currently targeted by a large fleet featuring a wide range of vessel sizes (segments), with highly variable capacities. In addition, the landings of the industrial fleet are used exclusively by the reduction industry, while those performed by small- and medium-scale vessels are destined mainly for direct human consumption. Despite these differences, the entire fleet is made up of purse seiners that perform similar operations when at sea. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to identify the differences in eco-efficiency between the different fleet segments in order to delve into the potential environmental improvements that could be attained through operational benchmarking. To this end, the combined use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was applied to the Peruvian anchoveta fleet. More specifically, a modified 5-step LCA + DEA method, whose particularities are broadly discussed throughout the study, was computed to obtain the desired operational benchmarks and, thereafter, estimate the target environmental gains. Results led to an average efficiency score of 86% throughout the segments, with a total of eight fleet segments out of 13 (62%) operating inefficiently. Nevertheless, no clear pattern was identified through the segments, although certain correlations with stock abundance, fuel use intensity, overcapacity and climatic conditions are discussed. Reduction in material inputs based on operational benchmarks translated into environmental gains that ranged from 26% to 53% for inefficient segments. Finally, it is expected that the findings in this study may aid stakeholders and policy makers when revising fuel use optimisation and overcapacity management strategies.
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ISSN 0959-6526 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1146
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Auteur Christensen, V.; Coll, M.; Piroddi, C.; Steenbeek, J.; Buszowski, J.; Pauly, D.
Titre A century of fish biomass decline in the ocean Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Mar Ecol Prog Ser
Volume 512 Numéro (up) Pages 155-166
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Résumé ABSTRACT: We performed a global assessment of how fish biomass has changed over the last 100 yr, applying a previously developed methodology using ecological modeling. Our assessment built on more than 200 food web models representing marine ecosystems throughout the world covering the period from 1880 to 2007. All models were constructed based on the same approach, and have been previously documented. We spatially and temporally distributed fish biomasses delivered by these models based on fish habitat preferences, ecology, and feeding conditions. From these distributions, we extracted over 68000 estimates of biomass (for predatory and prey fishes separately, including trophic level of 3.5 or higher, and trophic level between 2.0 and 3.0, respectively), and predicted spatial-temporal trends in fish biomass using multiple regression. Our results predicted that the biomass of predatory fish in the world oceans has declined by two-thirds over the last 100 yr. This decline is accelerating, with 54% occurring in the last 40 yr. Results also showed that the biomass of prey fish has increased over the last 100 yr, likely as a consequence of predation release. These findings allowed us to predict that there will be fish in the future ocean, but the composition of fish assemblages will be very different from current ones, with small prey fish dominating. Our results show that the trophic structure of marine ecosystems has changed at a global scale, in a manner consistent with fishing down marine food webs.
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 379
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