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Auteur van der Geest, M.; Sall, A.A.; Ely, S.O.; Nauta, R.W.; van Gils, J.A.; Piersma, T.
Titre Nutritional and reproductive strategies in a chemsoymbiotic bivalve living in a tropical intertidal seagrass bed Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Ecology Progress Series
Volume 501 Numéro Pages 113-126
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ 848 collection 1378
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Auteur Poisson, F.; Filmalter, J.D.; Vernet, A.L.; Dagorn, L.
Titre Mortality rate of silky sharks (Carcharhinus falciformis) caught in the tropical tuna purse seine fishery in the Indian Ocean Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Volume 71 Numéro 6 Pages 795-798
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Résumé Scientists aboard French purse seine vessels recorded the number and condition of silky sharks (Carcharhinus falciformis) caught during three fishing cruises in the Indian Ocean. A sample of 31 individuals that showed signs of life were tagged with satellite tags to investigate their postrelease mortality. The majority of individuals (95%) were brought on board using the brailer. Combining the proportion of sharks that were dead (72%) and the mortality rate of those released (48%), the overall mortality rate of brailed individuals was 85%. Few individuals (5%) were not brailed as they were entangled and landed during the hauling process. The survival rate of these individuals was high, with an overall mortality rate of meshed individuals of 18%. The combination of these two categories led to an overall mortality rate of 81%. This high value reflects the harsh conditions encountered by sharks during the purse seine fishing process. Consequently, methods that prevent sharks being brought on board are a priority for future investigations, but good handling practices should also be promoted as they could reduce mortality by at least 19%.
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 368
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Auteur Christensen, V.; Coll, M.; Piroddi, C.; Steenbeek, J.; Buszowski, J.; Pauly, D.
Titre A century of fish biomass decline in the ocean Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Mar Ecol Prog Ser
Volume 512 Numéro Pages 155-166
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Résumé ABSTRACT: We performed a global assessment of how fish biomass has changed over the last 100 yr, applying a previously developed methodology using ecological modeling. Our assessment built on more than 200 food web models representing marine ecosystems throughout the world covering the period from 1880 to 2007. All models were constructed based on the same approach, and have been previously documented. We spatially and temporally distributed fish biomasses delivered by these models based on fish habitat preferences, ecology, and feeding conditions. From these distributions, we extracted over 68000 estimates of biomass (for predatory and prey fishes separately, including trophic level of 3.5 or higher, and trophic level between 2.0 and 3.0, respectively), and predicted spatial-temporal trends in fish biomass using multiple regression. Our results predicted that the biomass of predatory fish in the world oceans has declined by two-thirds over the last 100 yr. This decline is accelerating, with 54% occurring in the last 40 yr. Results also showed that the biomass of prey fish has increased over the last 100 yr, likely as a consequence of predation release. These findings allowed us to predict that there will be fish in the future ocean, but the composition of fish assemblages will be very different from current ones, with small prey fish dominating. Our results show that the trophic structure of marine ecosystems has changed at a global scale, in a manner consistent with fishing down marine food webs.
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 379
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Auteur Coll, M.; Carreras, M.; Ciércoles, C.; Cornax, M.-J.; Gorelli, G.; Morote, E.; Sáez, R.
Titre Assessing Fishing and Marine Biodiversity Changes Using Fishers' Perceptions: The Spanish Mediterranean and Gulf of Cadiz Case Study Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée PLoS ONE
Volume 9 Numéro 1 Pages
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Résumé BackgroundThe expansion of fishing activities has intensively transformed marine ecosystems worldwide. However, available time series do not frequently cover historical periods.MethodologyFishers' perceptions were used to complement data and characterise changes in fishing activity and exploited ecosystems in the Spanish Mediterranean Sea and Gulf of Cadiz. Fishers' interviews were conducted in 27 fishing harbours of the area, and included 64 fishers from ages between 20 to >70 years old to capture the experiences and memories of various generations. Results are discussed in comparison with available independent information using stock assessments and international convention lists.Principal FindingsAccording to fishers, fishing activity substantially evolved in the area with time, expanding towards deeper grounds and towards areas more distant from the coast. The maximum amount of catch ever caught and the weight of the largest species ever captured inversely declined with time. Fishers (70%) cited specific fishing grounds where depletion occurred. They documented ecological changes of marine biodiversity during the last half of the century: 94% reported the decline of commercially important fish and invertebrates and 61% listed species that could have been extirpated, with frequent mentions to cartilaginous fish. Declines and extirpations were in line with available quantitative evaluations from stock assessments and international conventions, and were likely linked to fishing impacts. Conversely, half of interviewed fishers claimed that several species had proliferated, such as cephalopods, jellyfish, and small-sized fish. These changes were likely related to trophic cascades due to fishing and due to climate change effects. The species composition of depletions, local extinctions and proliferations showed differences by region suggesting that regional dynamics are important when analysing biodiversity changes.Conclusions/SignificanceUsing fishers' perceptions, fishing and ecological changes in the study area were documented. The recovery of local ecological knowledge provides valuable information complementing quantitative monitoring and evaluation surveys.
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 380
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Auteur Freon, P.; Avadi, A.; Soto, W.M.; Negron, R.
Titre Environmentally extended comparison table of large-versus small- and medium-scale fisheries : the case of the Peruvian anchoveta fleet Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Volume 71 Numéro 10 Pages 1459-1474
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Résumé Literature on small-scale fisheries usually depicts them as preferable over large-scale-industrial fisheries regarding societal benefits (jobs, jobs per investment) and relative fuel efficiency (e. g., Thomson 1980). We propose an environmentally extended Thomson table for comparing the Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) fleets of purse seiners, backed up by methodological information and augmented with life cycle assessment (LCA)-based environmental performance information, as a more comprehensive device for comparing fleets competing for the same resource pool. Findings from LCA and a previous study on the anchoveta steel fleet together allowed characterizing the whole Peruvian anchoveta fishery. These results, along with socioeconomic indicators, are used to build an environmentally extended Thomson table of the fleet's main segments: the steel industrial, the wooden industrial, and the wooden small-and medium-scale (SMS) fleets. In contrast with the world figure, the Peruvian SMS fleets show a fuel performance nearly two times worse than the industrial fleets, due to economies of scale of the latter (although the small-scale segment itself (<10 m(3)) performs similarly to the industrial steel fleet). Furthermore, the absolute number of jobs provided by the industrial fisheries is much larger in Peru than those provided by the SMS fisheries. This is due to the relatively larger development of the industrial fishery, but as in previous studies, the SMS fleets generate more employment per tonne landed than the industrial fleet, as well as more food fish and less discards at sea.
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1149
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