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Auteur Rishworth, G.M.; Tremblay, Y.; Green, D.B.; Pistorius, P.A.
Titre An automated approach towards measuring time-activity budgets in colonial seabirds Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Methods Ecol Evol
Volume 5 Numéro 9 Pages (down) 854-863
Mots-Clés automated monitoring; Bioindicator; Cape gannet; foraging effort; very high frequency
Résumé * Seabird proxies have the potential to act as useful and cost-effective indicators of the state of the marine environment. Seabird time-activity budgets, in particular, reflect short-term changes in prey conditions. * We tested an automated technique for long-term continuous recording of Cape gannet, Morus capensis, time-activity budgets using coded very high frequency (VHF) transmitters allowing for simultaneous monitoring of a large sample of study birds. * Radiotransmitters attached to leg-rings had no impact on adult foraging trip and nest attendance durations, breeding success or chick growth. Furthermore, frequencies of nest attendance and foraging trip durations estimated by the VHF logging system were no different to those estimated from hourly direct observations. * Using time-depth recorders, the relationship between the time that birds rested on the sea surface in relation to foraging trip duration was assessed. Trip duration during chick rearing was clearly an accurate proxy for foraging effort. * The VHF monitoring system provides a simple method of accurately assessing the time-activity budgets of colonial seabirds, which can be expanded to a range of other colonially breeding taxa. In the case of seabirds, this approach can potentially provide sensitive, real-time indicators of prey abundance for fisheries management.
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 2041-210x ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1203
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Auteur Mazel, F.; Guilhaumon, F.; Mouquet, N.; Devictor, V.; Gravel, D.; Renaud, J.; Cianciaruso, M.V.; Loyola, R.; Diniz, J.A.F.; Mouillot, D.; Thuiller, W.
Titre Multifaceted diversity-area relationships reveal global hotspots of mammalian species, trait and lineage diversity Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Global Ecology and Biogeography
Volume 23 Numéro 8 Pages (down) 836-847
Mots-Clés Conservation biogeography; Hill's numbers; biodiversity hotspots; congruent; conservation priorities; diversity indices; ecoregions; endemism; evolutionary; functional diversity-area; histories; mammals; phylogenetic diversity; phylogenetic diversity-area; relationship; richness gradients; spatial-patterns; species-area relationship
Résumé Aim To define biome-scale hotspots of phylogenetic and functional mammalian biodiversity (PD and FD, respectively) and compare them with 'classical' hotspots based on species richness (SR) alone. Location Global. Methods SR, PD and FD were computed for 782 terrestrial ecoregions using the distribution ranges of 4616 mammalian species. We used a set of comprehensive diversity indices unified by a recent framework incorporating the relative species coverage in each ecoregion. We built large-scale multifaceted diversity-area relationships to rank ecoregions according to their levels of biodiversity while accounting for the effect of area on each facet of diversity. Finally we defined hotspots as the top-ranked ecoregions. Results While ignoring relative species coverage led to a fairly good congruence between biome-scale top ranked SR, PD and FD hotspots, ecoregions harbouring a rich and abundantly represented evolutionary history and FD did not match with the top-ranked ecoregions defined by SR. More importantly PD and FD hotspots showed important spatial mismatches. We also found that FD and PD generally reached their maximum values faster than SR as a function of area. Main conclusions The fact that PD/FD reach their maximum value faster than SR could suggest that the two former facets might be less vulnerable to habitat loss than the latter. While this point is expected, it is the first time that it has been quantified at a global scale and should have important consequences for conservation. Incorporating relative species coverage into the delineation of multifaceted hotspots of diversity led to weak congruence between SR, PD and FD hotspots. This means that maximizing species number may fail to preserve those nodes (in the phylogenetic or functional tree) that are relatively abundant in the ecoregion. As a consequence it may be of prime importance to adopt a multifaceted biodiversity perspective to inform conservation strategies at a global scale.
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Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1466-822x ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 722
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Auteur Poisson, F.; Filmalter, J.D.; Vernet, A.L.; Dagorn, L.
Titre Mortality rate of silky sharks (Carcharhinus falciformis) caught in the tropical tuna purse seine fishery in the Indian Ocean Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
Volume 71 Numéro 6 Pages (down) 795-798
Mots-Clés
Résumé Scientists aboard French purse seine vessels recorded the number and condition of silky sharks (Carcharhinus falciformis) caught during three fishing cruises in the Indian Ocean. A sample of 31 individuals that showed signs of life were tagged with satellite tags to investigate their postrelease mortality. The majority of individuals (95%) were brought on board using the brailer. Combining the proportion of sharks that were dead (72%) and the mortality rate of those released (48%), the overall mortality rate of brailed individuals was 85%. Few individuals (5%) were not brailed as they were entangled and landed during the hauling process. The survival rate of these individuals was high, with an overall mortality rate of meshed individuals of 18%. The combination of these two categories led to an overall mortality rate of 81%. This high value reflects the harsh conditions encountered by sharks during the purse seine fishing process. Consequently, methods that prevent sharks being brought on board are a priority for future investigations, but good handling practices should also be promoted as they could reduce mortality by at least 19%.
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 368
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Auteur Monnet, A.C.; Jiguet, F.; Meynard, C.N.; Mouillot, D.; Mouquet, N.; Thuiller, W.; Devictor, V.
Titre Asynchrony of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity in birds Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Global Ecology and Biogeography
Volume 23 Numéro 7 Pages (down) 780-788
Mots-Clés Beta diversity; Rao; assemblages; beta components; biological diversity; breeding bird survey; climate-change; communities; conservation; evolutionary; functional traits; homogenization; indexes; patterns; species turnover; temporal dynamics
Résumé Aim We assessed the temporal trends of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversities in the French avifauna over the last two decades. Additionally, we investigated whether and how this multifaceted approach to biodiversity dynamics can reveal an increasing similarity of local assemblages in terms of species, traits and/or lineages. Location France. Methods We analysed a large-scale dataset that recorded annual changes in the abundance of 116 breeding birds in France between 1989 and 2012. We decomposed and analysed the spatio-temporal dynamics of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversities and each of their -, – and -components. We also calculated the trend in the mean specialization of bird communities to track the relative success of specialist versus generalist species within communities during the same period. Results We found large variation within and among the temporal trends of each biodiversity facet. On average, we found a marked increase in species and phylogenetic diversity over the period considered, but no particular trend was found for functional diversity. Conversely, changes in -diversities for the three facets were characterized by independent and nonlinear trends. We also found a general increase in the local occurrence and abundance of generalist species within local communities. Main conclusions These results highlight a relative asynchrony of the different biodiversity facets occurring at large spatial scales. We show why a multifaceted approach to biodiversity dynamics is needed to better describe and understand changes in community composition in macroecology and conservation biogeography.
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Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1466-822x ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 455
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Auteur Galletti, F.
Titre La protection juridique des réseaux écologiques marins. Compétences et implications du droit de la mer contemporain Type Chapitre de livre
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée
Volume Numéro Pages (down) 765-791
Mots-Clés Droit de l'environnement; Droit international de la mer; Droit public; Etat; Gouvernance; Réseaux écologiques marins
Résumé
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Editeur Editoriale Scientifica Lieu de Publication Napoli Éditeur
Langue Fre Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé La contribution de la Convention des Nations Unies sur le Droit de la Mer à la bonne gouvernance des
Volume de collection Vol. 2 Numéro de collection 2 Edition
ISSN ISBN 978-88-6342-638-0 Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1614
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