|   | 
Détails
   web
Enregistrements
Auteur Cresson, P.; Fabri, M.-C.; Bouchoucha, M.; Brach Papa, C.; Chavanon, F.; Jadaud, A.; Knoery, J.; MARCO-MIRALLES, F.; Cossa, D.
Titre Mercury in organisms from the Northwestern Mediterranean slope: Importance of food sources Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Science of The Total Environment
Volume 497-498 Numéro Pages 229-238
Mots-Clés Continental slope; Depth; Sharks; Stable Isotopes; Teleosts; Trophic webs
Résumé Mercury (Hg) is a global threat for marine ecosystems, especially within the Mediterranean Sea. The concern is higher for deep-sea organisms, as the Hg concentration in their tissues is commonly high. To assess the influence of food supply at two trophic levels, total Hg concentrations and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in 7 species (4 teleosts, 2 sharks, and 1 crustacean) sampled on the upper part of the continental slope of the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea), at depths between 284 and 816 m. Mean Hg concentrations ranged from 1.30 ± 0.61 to 7.13 ± 7.09 μg g− 1 dry mass, with maximum values observed for small-spotted catshark Scyliorhinus canicula. For all species except blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou, Hg concentrations were above the health safety limits for human consumption defined by the European Commission, with a variable proportion of the individuals exceeding limits (from 23% for the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus to 82% for the blackbelly rosefish Helicolenus dactylopterus). Measured concentrations increased with increasing trophic levels. Carbon isotopic ratios measured for these organisms demonstrated that settling phytoplanktonic organic matter is not only the main source fueling trophic webs but also the carrier of Hg to this habitat. Inter- and intraspecific variations of Hg concentrations revealed the importance of feeding patterns in Hg bioaccumulation. In addition, biological parameters, such as growth rate or bathymetric range explain the observed contamination trends.
Adresse
Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur (up)
Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 376
Lien permanent pour cet enregistrement
 

 
Auteur Avadi, A.; Freon, P.; Quispe, I.
Titre Environmental assessment of Peruvian anchoveta food products : is less refined better ? Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment
Volume 19 Numéro 6 Pages 1276-1293
Mots-Clés Cold chain; Engraulis ringens; Frozen, canned and cured fish; Life cycle assessment; Peru
Résumé Life cycle assessments (LCAs) of various anchovy (anchoveta) direct human consumption products processed in Peru were carried out, to evaluate their relative environmental performance as alternative products to enhance nutrition of communities with low access to fish products in the country. LCA was carried out for fresh, frozen, canned, salted and cured anchoveta products, both at plant gate and featuring local and national distribution over non-refrigerated, chilled and fully refrigerated distribution chain. The functional unit used was 1 kg of fish in the final product. Results demonstrate that, in environmental terms, more-refined products (cured and canned anchoveta products) represent a much higher burden than less- refined products (fresh, frozen and salted). Although this is a likely result, the magnitude of this difference (4 to 27 times when expressed as an environmental single score) is higher than expected and had not been quantified before for salted and cured products, as far as we know. This difference is mainly due to differences in energy consumption between types of products. Furthermore, cured and salted products feature larger biotic resource use, when calculated based on the whole fish equivalent, due to higher processing losses/discards. The relevance of taking into account the different transportation and storage needs is highlighted. For those products requiring refrigerated transportation and storage, over a national distribution chain, those activities increase the overall environmental impacts of the products by 55 % (fresh chilled) to 67 % (frozen). However, such an increase does not worsen the environmental performance of fresh and frozen products in comparison to the energy-intensive canned and cured products. It is concluded that a more sustainability-oriented analysis, including the social and economic pillars of sustainability, is required towards decision-making involving promotion of either product for addressing nutritional deficiencies in Peru.
Adresse
Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur (up)
Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0948-3349 ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1144
Lien permanent pour cet enregistrement
 

 
Auteur BROGGIATO, A.; ARNAUD-HAOND, S.; CHIAROLLA, C.; GREIBER, T.
Titre Fair and equitable sharing of benefits from the utilization of marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction: Bridging the gaps between science and policy Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Policy
Volume 49 Numéro Pages 176-185
Mots-Clés Access and benefit-sharing; Common pool resources; Intellectual property rights; Marine genetic resources; Marine scientific research; Public domain
Résumé Marine genetic resources are a subject of a growing body of research and development activities, as demonstrated by the abundance of marine patented genes reported in GenBank. Given the lack of a comprehensive legal regime for the management of marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction, the General Assembly of the United Nations met in 2006 to discuss whether there are regulatory or governance gaps and how to address them. Besides the crystallization of the different political positions, the process is now advancing towards making a decision about whether to develop an international instrument under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity, within which the regulation of access to genetic resources and the sharing of benefits from their utilization has emerged as an in-dissociable issue. In order to propose concrete options to be considered for the establishment of a legal framework addressing these issues, policy-makers need to better understand the feasibility, the costs and the modalities of scientific activities undertaken, together with the actual level of commercialization of new products. They also need to be aware of the already advanced practices in place within the scientific community, especially regarding sharing of non-monetary benefits. This paper particularly highlights and discusses practical scenarios to advance in the international process, based on the approaches adopted in other regional and international regimes for the management of genetic resources and on the best practices developed within the scientific community.
Adresse
Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur (up)
Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0308-597x ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 377
Lien permanent pour cet enregistrement
 

 
Auteur Avadi, A.; Freon, P.; Tam, J.
Titre Coupled ecosystem/supply chain modelling of fish products from sea to shelf : the Peruvian anchoveta case Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Plos One
Volume 9 Numéro 7 Pages
Mots-Clés
Résumé Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood (fish products for direct human consumption) supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model (including an ecosystem dimension) of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators (environmental, socio-economic, nutritional), and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains (e.g. fates of landed fish) and future exploitation scenarios. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds. The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them. Three scenarios were explored: status quo of fish exploitation (Scenario 1), increase in anchoveta landings for food (Scenario 2), and radical decrease in total anchoveta landings to allow other fish stocks to prosper (Scenario 3). It was found that Scenario 2 provided the best balance of sustainability improvements among the three scenarios, but further refinement of the assessment is recommended. In the long term, the best opportunities for improving the environmental and socio-economic performance of Peruvian fisheries are related to sustainability-improving management and policy changes affecting the reduction industry. Our approach provides the tools and quantitative results to identify these best improvement opportunities.
Adresse
Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur (up)
Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1145
Lien permanent pour cet enregistrement
 

 
Auteur Avadí, Á.; Vázquez-Rowe, I.; Freon, P.
Titre Eco-efficiency assessment of the Peruvian anchoveta steel and wooden fleets using the LCA+DEA framework Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Cleaner Production
Volume 70 Numéro Pages 118-131
Mots-Clés Data envelopment analysis; Eco-efficiency; Engraulis ringens; Life cycle assessment; Peru
Résumé The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is currently targeted by a large fleet featuring a wide range of vessel sizes (segments), with highly variable capacities. In addition, the landings of the industrial fleet are used exclusively by the reduction industry, while those performed by small- and medium-scale vessels are destined mainly for direct human consumption. Despite these differences, the entire fleet is made up of purse seiners that perform similar operations when at sea. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to identify the differences in eco-efficiency between the different fleet segments in order to delve into the potential environmental improvements that could be attained through operational benchmarking. To this end, the combined use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was applied to the Peruvian anchoveta fleet. More specifically, a modified 5-step LCA + DEA method, whose particularities are broadly discussed throughout the study, was computed to obtain the desired operational benchmarks and, thereafter, estimate the target environmental gains. Results led to an average efficiency score of 86% throughout the segments, with a total of eight fleet segments out of 13 (62%) operating inefficiently. Nevertheless, no clear pattern was identified through the segments, although certain correlations with stock abundance, fuel use intensity, overcapacity and climatic conditions are discussed. Reduction in material inputs based on operational benchmarks translated into environmental gains that ranged from 26% to 53% for inefficient segments. Finally, it is expected that the findings in this study may aid stakeholders and policy makers when revising fuel use optimisation and overcapacity management strategies.
Adresse
Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur (up)
Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0959-6526 ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1146
Lien permanent pour cet enregistrement