|   | 
Détails
   web
Enregistrements
Auteur Delzor, A.; Couratier, P.; Boumédiène, F.; Nicol, M.; Druet-Cabanac, M.; Paraf, F.; Méjean, A.; Ploux, O.; Leleu, J.-P.; Brient, L.; Lengronne, M.; Pichon, V.; Combès, A.; El Abdellaoui, S.; Bonneterre, V.; Lagrange, E.; Besson, G.; Bicout, D.J.; Boutonnat, J.; Camu, W.; Pageot, N.; Juntas-Morales, R.; Rigau, V.; Masseret, E.; Abadie, E.; Preux, P.-M.; Marin, B.
Titre Searching for a link between the L-BMAA neurotoxin and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study protocol of the French BMAALS programme Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée BMJ Open
Volume 4 Numéro 8 Pages
Mots-Clés
Résumé Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neurone disease. It occurs in two forms: (1) familial cases, for which several genes have been identified and (2) sporadic cases, for which various hypotheses have been formulated. Notably, the β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) toxin has been postulated to be involved in the occurrence of sporadic ALS. The objective of the French BMAALS programme is to study the putative link between L-BMAA and ALS.Methods and analysis The programme covers the period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2011. Using multiple sources of ascertainment, all the incident ALS cases diagnosed during this period in the area under study (10 counties spread over three French regions) were collected. First, the standardised incidence ratio will be calculated for each municipality under concern. Then, by applying spatial clustering techniques, overincidence and underincidence zones of ALS will be sought. A case–control study, in the subpopulation living in the identified areas, will gather information about patients’ occupations, leisure activities and lifestyle habits in order to assess potential risk factors to which they are or have been exposed. Specimens of drinking water, food and biological material (brain tissue) will be examined to assess the presence of L-BMAA in the environment and tissues of ALS cases and controls.Ethics and dissemination The study has been reviewed and approved by the French ethical committee of the CPP SOOM IV (Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud-Ouest & Outre-Mer IV). The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences.
Adresse
Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur (up)
Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 818
Lien permanent pour cet enregistrement
 

 
Auteur Sequeira, A.M.M.; Mellin, C.; Floch, L.; Williams, P.G.; Bradshaw, C.J.A.
Titre Inter-ocean asynchrony in whale shark occurrence patterns Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
Volume 450 Numéro Pages 21-29
Mots-Clés <!–; –><keyword; Handled; id=; Not; Tag
Résumé Abstract The whale shark (Rhincodon typus, Smith, 1828) is a migratory species (classed as Vulnerable by the IUCN) with genetic and circumstantial evidence for inter-ocean connectivity. Given this migratory behaviour, population-wide occurrence trends can only be contextualized by examining the synchrony in occurrence patterns among locations where they occur. We present a two-step modelling approach of whale shark spatial and temporal probability of occurrence in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans using generalized linear mixed-effects models. To test the hypothesis that the probability of whale shark occurrence is asynchronous across oceans, as expected if inter-ocean migration occurs, we used long-term datasets of whale shark sightings derived from tuna purse-seine logbooks covering most of the central-east Atlantic (1980–2010) and western Pacific (2000–2010). We predicted seasonal habitat suitability to produce maps in each area, and then evaluated the relative effect of time (year) on the probability of occurrence to test whether it changed over the study period. We also applied fast Fourier transforms to determine if any periodicity was apparent in whale shark occurrences in each ocean. After partialling out the effects of seasonal patterns in spatial distribution and sampling effort, we found no evidence for a temporal trend in whale shark occurrence in the Atlantic, but there was a weak trend of increasing probability of occurrence in the Pacific. The highest-ranked model for the latter included a spatial predictor of occurrence along with fishing effort, a linear term for time, and a random temporal effect (year), explaining 15% of deviance in whale shark probability of occurrence. Fast Fourier transforms revealed a prominent 15.5-year cycle in the Atlantic. The increase in the probability of occurrence in the Pacific is concurrent with a decrease previously detected in the Indian Ocean. Cyclic patterns driven by migratory behaviour would better explain temporal trends in whale shark occurrence at the oceanic scale. However, despite cycles partially explaining observations of fewer sharks in some years, overall reported sighting rate has been decreasing. As a result, we suggest that the current {IUCN} status of the species should be re-assessed, but more data are needed to examine the flow of individuals across oceans and to identify possible reasons for asynchronous occurrences.
Adresse
Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur (up)
Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0022-0981 ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 314
Lien permanent pour cet enregistrement
 

 
Auteur Poisson, F.; Séret, B.; Vernet, A.-L.; Goujon, M.; Dagorn, L.
Titre Collaborative research: Development of a manual on elasmobranch handling and release best practices in tropical tuna purse-seine fisheries Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Policy
Volume 44 Numéro Pages 312-320
Mots-Clés <!–; –><keyword; Handled; id=; Not; Tag
Résumé Abstract The reduction of by-catch mortality is an objective of the ecosystem approach to fisheries and a request made by consumers. Elasmobranchs, an important component of the French tropical tuna purse seine fishery by-catch, are currently thrown back into the sea. Fishers interact with various types of elasmobranchs that range widely in size, weight and shape, and could pose various degrees of danger to the crew. A diversity of discarding practices within the fleet were reported, some practices were considered suitable, others needed to be adapted and improved and others simply had to be banned. The majority of the crews were likely to improve their handling practices if they were presented with practical suggestions that were quick and easy. Combining scientific observations and empirical knowledge from skippers and crew, a manual, providing appropriate handling practices to ensure crew safety and increase the odds of survival for released animals has been developed and disseminated. Bringing these good practices onto the decks of fishing vessels should contribute to the reduction of the fishing mortality of some vulnerable species. It would be positively viewed by consumers as an act that reduces fishing's footprint on the environment and promoting animal welfare which would improve the image of fishing industry. Mitigation research is by definition an iterative process and different complementary methods must be carried out at different levels of the fishing process to significantly reduce the mortality of the by-catch.
Adresse
Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur (up)
Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0308-597x ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 315
Lien permanent pour cet enregistrement
 

 
Auteur Ban, N.C.; Maxwell, S.M.; Dunn, D.C.; Hobday, A.J.; Bax, N.J.; Ardron, J.; Gjerde, K.M.; Game, E.T.; Devillers, R.; Kaplan, D.M.; Dunstan, P.K.; Halpin, P.N.; Pressey, R.L.
Titre Better integration of sectoral planning and management approaches for the interlinked ecology of the open oceans Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Policy
Volume Numéro Pages
Mots-Clés Areas beyond national jurisdiction; Benthic-pelagic interlinkages; High seas; marine conservation; Marine Protected Areas; sustainable fisheries
Résumé Open oceans are one of the least protected, least studied and most inadequately managed ecosystems on Earth. Three themes were investigated that differentiate the open ocean (areas beyond national jurisdiction and deep area within exclusive economic zones) from other realms and must be considered when developing planning and management options: ecosystem interactions, especially between benthic and pelagic systems; potential effects of human activities in open oceans on ecological linkages; and policy context and options. A number of key ecological factors differentiate open oceans from coastal systems for planners and managers: (1) many species are widely distributed and, especially for those at higher trophic levels, wide ranging; (2) the sizes and boundaries of biogeographical domains (patterns of co-occurrence of species, habitats and ecosystem processes) vary significantly by depth; (3) habitat types exhibit a wide range of stabilities, from ephemeral (e.g., surface frontal systems) to hyper-stable (e.g., deep sea); and (4) vertical and horizontal linkages are prevalent. Together, these ecological attributes point to interconnectedness between open ocean habitats across large spatial scales. Indeed, human activities – especially fishing, shipping, and potentially deep-sea mining and oil and gas extraction – have effects far beyond the parts of the ocean in which they operate. While managing open oceans in an integrated fashion will be challenging, the ecological characteristics of the system demand it. A promising avenue forward is to integrate aspects of marine spatial planning (MSP), systematic conservation planning (SCP), and adaptive management. These three approaches to planning and management need to be integrated to meet the unique needs of open ocean systems, with MSP providing the means to meet a diversity of stakeholder needs, SCP providing the structured process to determine and prioritise those needs and appropriate responses, and adaptive management providing rigorous monitoring and evaluation to determine whether actions or their modifications meet both ecological and defined stakeholder needs. The flexibility of MSP will be enhanced by the systematic approach of SCP, while the rigorous monitoring of adaptive management will enable continued improvement as new information becomes available and further experience is gained.
Adresse
Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur (up)
Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0308-597x ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 317
Lien permanent pour cet enregistrement
 

 
Auteur Canard, E.F.; Mouquet, N.; Mouillot, D.; Stanko, M.; Miklisova, D.; Gravel, D.
Titre Empirical Evaluation of Neutral Interactions in Host-Parasite Networks Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée American Naturalist
Volume 183 Numéro 4 Pages 468-479
Mots-Clés abundance; animal mutualistic networks; community; dissimilarity; effort; food-web structure; geographical variation; host-parasite network; network structure; neutrality; null model; phylogenetic signal; reconciling niche; sampling; scale-dependence; species abundance distribution
Résumé While niche-based processes have been invoked extensively to explain the structure of interaction networks, recent studies propose that neutrality could also be of great importance. Under the neutral hypothesis, network structure would simply emerge from random encounters between individuals and thus would be directly linked to species abundance. We investigated the impact of species abundance distributions on qualitative and quantitative metrics of 113 host-parasite networks. We analyzed the concordance between neutral expectations and empirical observations at interaction, species, and network levels. We found that species abundance accurately predicts network metrics at all levels. Despite host-parasite systems being constrained by physiology and immunology, our results suggest that neutrality could also explain, at least partially, their structure. We hypothesize that trait matching would determine potential interactions between species, while abundance would determine their realization.
Adresse
Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur (up)
Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0003-0147 ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 573
Lien permanent pour cet enregistrement