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Auteur (up) Canard, E.F.; Mouquet, N.; Mouillot, D.; Stanko, M.; Miklisova, D.; Gravel, D.
Titre Empirical Evaluation of Neutral Interactions in Host-Parasite Networks Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée American Naturalist
Volume 183 Numéro 4 Pages 468-479
Mots-Clés abundance; animal mutualistic networks; community; dissimilarity; effort; food-web structure; geographical variation; host-parasite network; network structure; neutrality; null model; phylogenetic signal; reconciling niche; sampling; scale-dependence; species abundance distribution
Résumé While niche-based processes have been invoked extensively to explain the structure of interaction networks, recent studies propose that neutrality could also be of great importance. Under the neutral hypothesis, network structure would simply emerge from random encounters between individuals and thus would be directly linked to species abundance. We investigated the impact of species abundance distributions on qualitative and quantitative metrics of 113 host-parasite networks. We analyzed the concordance between neutral expectations and empirical observations at interaction, species, and network levels. We found that species abundance accurately predicts network metrics at all levels. Despite host-parasite systems being constrained by physiology and immunology, our results suggest that neutrality could also explain, at least partially, their structure. We hypothesize that trait matching would determine potential interactions between species, while abundance would determine their realization.
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Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0003-0147 ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 573
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Auteur (up) Capietto, A.; Escalle, L.; Chavance, P.; Dubroca, L.; Delgado de Molina, A.; Murua, H.; Floch, L.; Damiano, A.; Rowat, D.; Mérigot, B.
Titre Mortality of marine megafauna induced by fisheries: Insights from the whale shark, the world’s largest fish Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Biological Conservation
Volume 174 Numéro Pages 147-151
Mots-Clés Apparent survival; Bycatch; Hotspots of interaction; marine conservation; Megafauna; Rhincodon typus
Résumé The expansion of human activities is endangering megafauna in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. While large marine vertebrates are often vulnerable and emblematic species, many are considered to be declining, primarily due to fisheries activities. In the open ocean, certain fisheries improve their efficiency of detecting tuna schools by locating and fishing close to some macro-organisms, such as whale sharks or marine mammals. However, collecting accurate data on the accidental capture and mortality of these organisms is a complex process. We analyzed a large database of logbooks from 65 industrial vessels with and without scientific observers on board (487,272 and 16,096 fishing sets since 1980 and 1995 respectively) in both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Distribution maps of Sightings Per Unit of Effort highlights major hotspots of interactions between the fishery and whale sharks in the coastal area from Gabon to Angola in the Atlantic from April to September, and in the Mozambique Channel in the Indian Ocean between April and May. The incidence of apparent whale shark mortality due to fishery interaction is extremely low (two of the 145 whale sharks encircled by the net died, i.e. 1.38%). However, these two hotspots presented a relatively high rate of incidental whale shark capture. Thus, we underline the importance of estimating long-term post-release mortality rates by tracking individuals and/or by photographic identification to define precise conservation management measures.
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Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 347
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Auteur (up) CASINI, M.; ROUYER, T.; BARTOLINO, V.; LARSON, N.; GRYGIEL, W.
Titre Density-Dependence in Space and Time: Opposite Synchronous Variations in Population Distribution and Body Condition in the Baltic Sea Sprat (Sprattus sprattus) over Three Decades Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Plos One
Volume 9 Numéro 4 Pages
Mots-Clés
Résumé Spatio-temporal density-dependent processes are crucial regulatory factors for natural populations. However, there is a lack of studies addressing spatial density-dependence in fish growth. A previous investigation has suggested spatio-temporal density-dependence in body condition of Baltic sprat. Here, we used different techniques, such as centre of gravity, distance, and homogeneity indices, to better characterize the spatial and temporal variations in sprat density and body condition in the Baltic Proper. Our results evidenced a negative spatio-temporal co-variation between the centres of gravity of density and maximum condition. In the 1980s-early 1990s both centres were located in the middle of the Baltic Proper. From the mid 1990s the centres progressively separated in space, as the sprat population moved towards the north-eastern Baltic Proper, and the centre of maximum condition towards the south-western areas. Moreover, at low abundances, sprat density and condition were homogeneously distributed in space, whereas at high abundances both density and condition showed pronounced geographical gradients. The ecological processes potentially explaining the observed patterns were discussed in the light of the Ideal Free Distribution theory. We provide evidence that the shift in the spatial distribution of cod, the main predator of sprat, has been the main factor triggering the overall spatial changes in sprat density, and thus condition, during the past thirty years. The spatial indices shown here, synthesizing the spatio-temporal patterns of fish distribution, can support the implementation of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive.
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Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 374
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Auteur (up) Chaboud, C.
Titre Economie des pêches Type Chapitre de livre
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée
Volume Numéro Pages 277-344
Mots-Clés Amenagement Des Peches; Demande; Economie De Marche; Economie Des Peches; Effort De Peche; Gestion Des Peches; Groupe D'Age; Modele Bioeconomique; Modelisation; Prix; Ressources Halieutiques
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Editeur Iste Lieu de Publication Londres Éditeur Monaco, A.; Prouzet, P.
Langue fre Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Mer et Océan Titre de collection Abrégé Valorisation et économie des ressources marines
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN ISBN 9781784050 Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1316
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Auteur (up) Chaboud, C.
Titre Fisheries economics Type Chapitre de livre
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée
Volume Numéro Pages 153-231
Mots-Clés
Résumé
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Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Iste Lieu de Publication Londres Éditeur Monaco, A.; Prouzet, P.
Langue eng Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection ISTE Oceanography and Marine Biology Series : Seas and Oceans Set Titre de collection Abrégé Value and economy of marine resources
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN ISBN 9781848217 Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1317
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