|   | 
Détails
   web
Enregistrements
Auteur Ban, N.C.; Maxwell, S.M.; Dunn, D.C.; Hobday, A.J.; Bax, N.J.; Ardron, J.; Gjerde, K.M.; Game, E.T.; Devillers, R.; Kaplan, D.M.; Dunstan, P.K.; Halpin, P.N.; Pressey, R.L.
Titre Better integration of sectoral planning and management approaches for the interlinked ecology of the open oceans Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Policy
Volume Numéro Pages
Mots-Clés Areas beyond national jurisdiction; Benthic-pelagic interlinkages; High seas; marine conservation; Marine Protected Areas; sustainable fisheries
Résumé Open oceans are one of the least protected, least studied and most inadequately managed ecosystems on Earth. Three themes were investigated that differentiate the open ocean (areas beyond national jurisdiction and deep area within exclusive economic zones) from other realms and must be considered when developing planning and management options: ecosystem interactions, especially between benthic and pelagic systems; potential effects of human activities in open oceans on ecological linkages; and policy context and options. A number of key ecological factors differentiate open oceans from coastal systems for planners and managers: (1) many species are widely distributed and, especially for those at higher trophic levels, wide ranging; (2) the sizes and boundaries of biogeographical domains (patterns of co-occurrence of species, habitats and ecosystem processes) vary significantly by depth; (3) habitat types exhibit a wide range of stabilities, from ephemeral (e.g., surface frontal systems) to hyper-stable (e.g., deep sea); and (4) vertical and horizontal linkages are prevalent. Together, these ecological attributes point to interconnectedness between open ocean habitats across large spatial scales. Indeed, human activities – especially fishing, shipping, and potentially deep-sea mining and oil and gas extraction – have effects far beyond the parts of the ocean in which they operate. While managing open oceans in an integrated fashion will be challenging, the ecological characteristics of the system demand it. A promising avenue forward is to integrate aspects of marine spatial planning (MSP), systematic conservation planning (SCP), and adaptive management. These three approaches to planning and management need to be integrated to meet the unique needs of open ocean systems, with MSP providing the means to meet a diversity of stakeholder needs, SCP providing the structured process to determine and prioritise those needs and appropriate responses, and adaptive management providing rigorous monitoring and evaluation to determine whether actions or their modifications meet both ecological and defined stakeholder needs. The flexibility of MSP will be enhanced by the systematic approach of SCP, while the rigorous monitoring of adaptive management will enable continued improvement as new information becomes available and further experience is gained.
Adresse
Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0308-597x ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé (up) pas de
Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 317
Lien permanent pour cet enregistrement
 

 
Auteur Canard, E.F.; Mouquet, N.; Mouillot, D.; Stanko, M.; Miklisova, D.; Gravel, D.
Titre Empirical Evaluation of Neutral Interactions in Host-Parasite Networks Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée American Naturalist
Volume 183 Numéro 4 Pages 468-479
Mots-Clés abundance; animal mutualistic networks; community; dissimilarity; effort; food-web structure; geographical variation; host-parasite network; network structure; neutrality; null model; phylogenetic signal; reconciling niche; sampling; scale-dependence; species abundance distribution
Résumé While niche-based processes have been invoked extensively to explain the structure of interaction networks, recent studies propose that neutrality could also be of great importance. Under the neutral hypothesis, network structure would simply emerge from random encounters between individuals and thus would be directly linked to species abundance. We investigated the impact of species abundance distributions on qualitative and quantitative metrics of 113 host-parasite networks. We analyzed the concordance between neutral expectations and empirical observations at interaction, species, and network levels. We found that species abundance accurately predicts network metrics at all levels. Despite host-parasite systems being constrained by physiology and immunology, our results suggest that neutrality could also explain, at least partially, their structure. We hypothesize that trait matching would determine potential interactions between species, while abundance would determine their realization.
Adresse
Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0003-0147 ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé (up) pas de
Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 573
Lien permanent pour cet enregistrement
 

 
Auteur Cuif, M.; Kaplan, D.M.; Lefèvre, J.; Faure, V.M.; Caillaud, M.; Verley, P.; Vigliola, L.; Lett, C.
Titre Wind-induced variability in larval retention in a coral reef system: a biophysical modelling study in the South-West Lagoon of New Caledonia Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Progress in Oceanography
Volume 122 Numéro Pages 105-115
Mots-Clés Biophysical model; Dascyllus aruanus; Homing; Larval dispersal; New Caledonia; Precompetency; Wind-driven transport
Résumé In the present work, a biophysical dispersal model is used to understand the role of the physical environment in determining reef fish larval dispersal patterns in the South-West Lagoon of New Caledonia. We focus on a reef fish species, the humbug damselfish Dascyllus aruanus, to investigate seasonal variability of simulated larval retention at the scale of a reef patch and at the scale of the lagoon, and to explore links between larval retention and wind variability. The model shows that retention exhibits considerable temporal variability and periodically reaches values much larger than anticipated. Non-zero larval settlement occurs over a large part of the lagoon. Nevertheless, settlement values decrease quickly away from the natal reef and mean dispersal distances are of order 25-35 km. Cross-correlation analyses indicate that weather conditions characterized by strong south east trade winds lead to low retention rates at both local (reef) and regional (lagoon) scales. By contrast, subtropical weather conditions characterized by weak winds result in high retention rates. These results suggest that large-scale weather regimes can be used as proxies for larval retention of the humbug damselfish in the South-West Lagoon of New Caledonia. Nevertheless, relatively small mean dispersal distances suggest that meta-population dynamics occur on relatively small spatial scales.
Adresse
Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0079-6611 ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé (up) pas de
Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 318
Lien permanent pour cet enregistrement
 

 
Auteur Stier, A.; Viblanc, V.A.; Massemin-Challet, S.; Handrich, Y.; Zahn, S.; Rojas, E.R.; Saraux, C.; Le Vaillant, M.; Prud'homme, O.; Grosbellet, E.; Robin, J.-P.; Bize, P.; Criscuolo, F.
Titre Starting with a handicap: phenotypic differences between early- and late-born king penguin chicks and their survival correlates Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Functional Ecology
Volume Numéro Pages
Mots-Clés corticosterone; early-life conditions; growth; individual quality; oxidative stress; phenotypic plasticity; reproductive timing; telomere
Résumé * The exceptionally long (c. 11 months) growth period of king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is interrupted by the Austral winter. As a consequence, penguin chicks born late in the breeding season have little time to build-up their energy reserves before the drastic energy bottleneck they experience during winter and face greater risks of mortality than early-born chicks. * Whereas it is well known that breeding adults alternate between early- and late-breeding attempts, little is known on the phenotype of early- and late-chicks, and on the potential existence of specific adaptive phenotypic responses in late-born individuals. * We investigated phenotypic differences between early- and late-chicks and tested their survival correlates both before the winter and at fledgling. Chicks were sampled 10 days after hatching to measure body mass, plasma corticosterone levels, oxidative stress parameters and telomere length. * Late-chicks were heavier than early-chicks at day 10. Late-chicks also had higher corticosterone and oxidative stress levels, shorter telomere lengths and suffered from higher mortality rates than early-chicks. For both early- and late-chicks, high body mass close to hatching was a strong predictor of survival up to, and over, the winter period. * In late but not early-chicks, high corticosterone levels and long telomeres were significant predictors of survival up to winter and fledging, respectively. * Our study provides evidence that late- and early-king penguin chicks showed marked phenotypic differences 10 days after hatching. We provide an integrative discussion on whether these differences may be adaptive or not, and to what extent they may be driven by active maternal effects, indirectly induced by environmental effects, or stem from individual differences in parental quality.
Adresse
Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1365-2435 ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé (up) pas de
Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 319
Lien permanent pour cet enregistrement
 

 
Auteur Viblanc, V.A.; Saraux, C.; Malosse, N.; Groscolas, R.
Titre Energetic adjustments in freely breeding-fasting king penguins: does colony density matter? Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Functional Ecology
Volume Numéro Pages
Mots-Clés body temperature; energy expenditure; fasting; heart rate; physical activity; Seabird; social density; Stress
Résumé * For seabirds that forage at sea but breed while fasting on land, successful reproduction depends on the effective management of energy stores. Additionally, breeding often means aggregating in dense colonies where social stress may affect energy budgets. * Male king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) fast for remarkably long periods (up to 1·5 months) while courting and incubating ashore. Although their fasting capacities have been well investigated in captivity, we still know very little about the energetics of freely breeding birds. * We monitored heart rate (HR, a proxy to energy expenditure), body temperature and physical activity of male king penguins during their courtship and first incubation shift in a colony of some 24 000 freely breeding pairs. Males were breeding either under low but increasing colony density (early breeders) or at high and stable density (late breeders). * In early breeders, daily mean and resting HR decreased during courtship but increased again 3 days before egg laying and during incubation. In late breeders, HR remained stable throughout this same breeding period. Interestingly, the daily increase in resting HR we observed in early breeders was strongly associated with a marked increase in colony density over time. This finding remained significant even after controlling for climate effects. * In both early and late breeders, courtship and incubation were associated with a progressive decrease in physical activity, whereas core body temperature remained unchanged. * We discuss the roles of decreased physical activity and thermoregulatory strategies in sustaining the long courtship–incubation fast of male king penguins. We also draw attention to a potential role of conspecific density in affecting the energetics of breeding-fasting seabirds, that is, a potential energy cost to coloniality.
Adresse
Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1365-2435 ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé (up) pas de
Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 320
Lien permanent pour cet enregistrement