||Sediment resuspension can provoke strong water enrichment in nutrients, contaminants, and microorganisms. Microcosm incubations were performed in triplicate for 96 h, with lagoon and offshore waters incubated either with sediment elutriate or with an artificial mixture of contaminants issued from sediment resuspension. Sediment elutriate provoked a strong increase in microbial biomass, with little effects on the phytoplankton and bacterioplankton community structures. Among the pool of contaminants released, few were clearly identified as structuring factors of phytoplanktdn and bacterioplankton communities, namely simazine, Cu, Sn, Ni, and Cr. Effects were more pronounced in the offshore waters, suggesting a relative tolerance of the lagoon microbial communities to contamination. The impacts of contamination on the microbial community structure were direct or indirect, depending on the nature and the strength of the interactions between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.