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Auteur (up) FERRARI, S.; Leguay, D.; Vergnet, A.; Vidal, M.-O.; Chatain, B.; Bégout, M.-L. url  doi
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  Titre Unpredictability in food supply during early life influences growth and boldness in European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax Type Article scientifique
  Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Applied Animal Behaviour Science  
  Volume 180 Numéro Pages 147-156  
  Mots-Clés Behavior; Dicentrarchus labrax; Environmental effect; Exploration; Food deprivation divergent strains; Personality  
  Résumé Biological variability is no longer considered as statistical noise, but rather as an adaptive benefit. This variability comes from consistent differences in behavioral and physiological responses among individuals to a changing/challenging environment, named “coping style”, “temperament” or “personality”. Many studies have described how to characterize personality traits and how to assess their consistency over time and between different contexts; however, little is known about the environmental factors shaping personality development. Because contrasting personalities are maintained with evolution, this lead to the widespread assumption that genes play a predominant role in personality. In many cases, personality traits are however also likely to be determined by individual experience, which is probably at least as important as genetics in shaping personality. The aim of this study was to assess how environmental variability (herein food predictability) impacts behavioral responses, particularly the shyness-boldness axis, one of the most widely shared animal personality trait. Here, we reared juvenile seabass (95 days old) from two divergent strains selected for feed deprivation tolerance under standard conditions for 40 days. Thereafter, we submitted them to two feeding treatments (Predictable versus Unpredictable) starting at 135 dph and lasting 60 days. Seabass reared under a predictable food supply (PFS) grew faster and were shyer than fish reared under an unpredictable food supply (UFS) (i.e. they took more time to exit the refuge zone of a Z-maze; UFS: 132.47 ± 34.63 s; PFS: 336.79 ± 56.97 s) but their exploration tendency was similar. We also examined the behavioral responses of these fish facing a hypoxic challenge. Hypoxia tolerance results were consistent before and after the two feeding treatments. Our findings show the importance of early environmental experience as a driving force shaping boldness. In addition, we provide further evidence that predictable feeding time should be respected in studies assessing essential functions such as growth and behavior. Although personality traits are partially heritable, this study demonstrates the important influence of environmental conditions and life history on behavior.  
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  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1574  
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