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Auteur (up) McKenzie, D.J.; Hoglund, E.; Dupont-Prinet, A.; Larsen, B.K.; Skov, P.V.; Pedersen, P.B.; Jokumsen, A. doi  openurl
  Titre Effects of stocking density and sustained aerobic exercise on growth, energetics and welfare of rainbow trout Type Article scientifique
  Année 2012 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquaculture  
  Volume 338 Numéro Pages 216-222  
  Mots-Clés Aerobic scope; charr salvelinus-alpinus; Cortisol; Critical swimming speed; current issues; feeding-behavior; fish welfare; juvenile arctic charr; oncorhynchus-mykiss; respiratory physiology; respirometry; salmon salmo-salar; Stress; stress-response; swimming performance; Welfare indicator  
  Résumé Two stocking densities, “low” (L, between similar to 19 and similar to 25 kg m(-3)) and “high” (H, between similar to 75 and similar to 100 kg m(-3)) were compared for effects on specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion, energetics and welfare of rainbow trout reared at 14 degrees C either in static water (S) or swimming in a gentle current of similar to 0.9 bodylengths s(-1) (C). Trout (initial mass similar to 110 g) were reared for 9 weeks in circular tanks (volume 0.6 m(3)), in triplicate of four conditions (LS, LC, HS, HC). Fish were fed ad-libitum daily: waste pellets were swirl-collected at the outflow to calculate feed intake. SGR was measured each three weeks for the last six weeks of the trial. The tanks functioned as intermittent-stopped flow respirometers, to permit metabolic rate to be measured as instantaneous oxygen uptake once per hour. Mean (+/-SD) SGR was significantly lower at H than L (1.51 +/- 0.03 vs 1.44 +/- 0.04% day(-1), respectively, n = 6) and lowest in HC. When compared over a similar interval of mass gain, H groups had approximately 25% higher metabolic rates than L, with the highest rates in the HC condition. As a result, fish in the H groups dissipated a greater amount of feed energy as metabolism and, across all groups, there was a direct negative relationship between the quantity of energy dissipated and their SCR. There was no evidence of a neuroendocrine stress response, plasma cortisol was around 1 ng ml(-1) in all conditions. An acute crowding stress increased plasma cortisol to above 120 ng ml(-1) in all groups, but C groups recovered to control levels within 8 h whereas S groups required 20 h. Respirometry on individuals revealed that H fish had approximately 14% higher metabolic rates than L fish, indicating that increased metabolic rate in rearing tanks was in part physiological. The H groups had approximately 15% lower critical swimming speeds than the L groups which, together with their raised metabolic rate, indicated a physiological impairment Thus, high density reduced SGR by raising energy dissipation, at least partially as a physiological response by the fish, although there was no evidence of an endocrine stress response. The only beneficial effect of C was in recovery from acute stress. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.  
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  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0044-8486 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1431  
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