||The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is currently targeted by a large fleet featuring a wide range of vessel sizes (segments), with highly variable capacities. In addition, the landings of the industrial fleet are used exclusively by the reduction industry, while those performed by small- and medium-scale vessels are destined mainly for direct human consumption. Despite these differences, the entire fleet is made up of purse seiners that perform similar operations when at sea. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to identify the differences in eco-efficiency between the different fleet segments in order to delve into the potential environmental improvements that could be attained through operational benchmarking. To this end, the combined use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was applied to the Peruvian anchoveta fleet. More specifically, a modified 5-step LCA + DEA method, whose particularities are broadly discussed throughout the study, was computed to obtain the desired operational benchmarks and, thereafter, estimate the target environmental gains. Results led to an average efficiency score of 86% throughout the segments, with a total of eight fleet segments out of 13 (62%) operating inefficiently. Nevertheless, no clear pattern was identified through the segments, although certain correlations with stock abundance, fuel use intensity, overcapacity and climatic conditions are discussed. Reduction in material inputs based on operational benchmarks translated into environmental gains that ranged from 26% to 53% for inefficient segments. Finally, it is expected that the findings in this study may aid stakeholders and policy makers when revising fuel use optimisation and overcapacity management strategies.