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Auteur (up) Alix, M.; Blondeau-Bidet, E.; Grousset, E.; Shiranghi, A.; Vergnet, A.; Guinand, B.; Chatain, B.; Boulo, V.; Lignot, J.-H. doi  openurl
  Titre Effects of fasting and re-alimentation on gill and intestinal morphology and indicators of osmoregulatory capacity in genetically selected sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) populations with contrasting tolerance to fasting Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquaculture  
  Volume 468 Numéro Pages 314-325  
  Mots-Clés bream sparus-auratus; dietary-sodium chloride; Enterocyte; Fasting; feed deprivation; fish; fresh-water; fundulus-heteroclitus; Gill ionocyte; Morphometry; Ontogeny; oreochromis-mossambicus; Osmoregulation; rainbow-trout; Re-alimentation; Salinity; Sea bass  
  Résumé Fasting and refeeding occur naturally in predators but this is largely ignored when dealing with farmed fish. Therefore,the effects of 3-week fasting and re-alimentation (2.5% of the individual body mass) were investigated using two genetically selected populations (F2 generation) of 250 g juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Blood osmolarity, gill and intestinal morphology and expression of the sodium pump (Na+, K+-ATPase, NKA) were studied on two phenotypes showing different degrees of body mass loss during food deprivation: one group losing body mass rapidly during fasting (F+) and the other one limiting body mass loss during the same period (F-). Blood osmotic pressure significantly decreases due to re-alimentation in both groups, but this is compensated in the F+ group. In this group, gill ionocytes are smaller and less numerous, but a significantly higher NKA gene expression is noted in the gills in comparison to the F- individuals 48 and 72 h after re-alimentation, and also in the posterior intestine 72 h after re-alimentation. This most probably occurs to compensate for a higher salt intake during nutrient absorption in comparison to the F- group. Furthermore, refed F- fish absorb more lipids along the proximal anterior intestine, and take longer to digest than the F+ group, and show enterocyte vacuolization in the posterior intestine. Therefore, the two selected populations have different postprandial digestive strategies: the F- fish optimize feed efficiency first at the cost of optimal hydromineral adjustment, while the F+ group invests in osmoregulatory performance at the expense of digestive physiology. Statement of relevance: Our paper is highly relevant to the general field of commercial aquaculture. There is an increasing number of research articles dealing with fasting and refeeding in commercial fish and how to improve fish nutrition based oh these physiological data and genetic selection. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.  
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Auteur (up) Avadi, A.; Pelletier, N.; Aubin, J.; Ralite, S.; Nunez Rodriguez, J.; Freon, P. url  doi
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  Titre Comparative environmental performance of artisanal and commercial feed use in Peruvian freshwater aquaculture Type Article scientifique
  Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquaculture  
  Volume 435 Numéro Pages 52-66  
  Mots-Clés Aquafeed; Black pacu; Environmental impact assessment; Peru; Tilapia; Trout  
  Résumé We used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate some of the environmental implications of using commercial versus artisanal feeds in Peruvian freshwater aquaculture of trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and black pacu (Colossoma macropomum). Several scenarios believed to be representative of current Peruvian aquaculture practices were modelled, namely: production of trout in Andean lake cages; and culture of black pacu and tilapia in Amazonian and coastal lowland ponds, respectively. In general, Peruvian aquaculture is characterised by low technological intensity practices. Use of commercial aquafeeds is widespread, but artisanal feeds are frequently used in certain small-scale farms. We found that trout feeds feature higher environmental burdens than do black pacu and tilapia feeds. A similar trend is observed for production of these species. Across species, the substitution of artisanal with commercial feeds, despite improving feed conversion ratios in all cases, does not always reduce overall environmental impacts. This is due to the additional energy use and transportation requirements associated with commercial feed inputs. The substitution of artisanal feeds with commercial ones generally increases environmental impacts of the fish farming systems for the specific feeds considered, despite enhanced FCRs and economies of scale. This is due to the higher environmental impacts associated to certain feed inputs used in commercial feeds, in particular highly refined feed inputs. Consequently, in light of the importance of feeds to overall life cycle impacts of aquaculture production, the Peruvian aquafeed industry should preferentially source less refined and, in general, less environmentally burdened feed inputs (e. g. Bolivian soybean products over Brazilian, high quality over lower quality fishmeal, avoiding protein concentrates, etc.), to the extent that fish farming performance (i.e. feed conversion efficiency and cost structure) is not strongly affected. Among species, black pacu aquaculture shows the best environmental performance.  
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Auteur (up) Blasco, F.R.; McKenzie, D.J.; Taylor, E.W.; Rantin, F.T. doi  openurl
  Titre The role of the autonomic nervous system in control of cardiac and air-breathing responses to sustained aerobic exercise in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A-Mol. Integr. Physiol.  
  Volume 203 Numéro Pages 273-280  
  Mots-Clés Adrenergic tone; bass dicentrarchus-labrax; cardiorespiratory interactions; Cholinergic tone; Fishes; Heart rate; heart-rate; hoplerythrinus-unitaeniatus; Hypoxia; oxygen-tensions; rainbow-trout; salmo-gairdneri; Swimming; synbranchus-marmoratus  
  Résumé Clarias gariepinus is a facultative air-breathing catfish that exhibits changes in heart rate (f(H)) associated with air breaths (AB). A transient bradycardia prior to the AB is followed by sustained tachycardia during breath-hold. This study evaluated air-breathing and cardiac responses to sustained aerobic exercise in juveniles (total length similar to 20 cm), and how exercise influenced variations in f(H) associated with AB. In particular, it investigated the role of adrenergic and cholinergic control in cardiac responses, and effects of pharmacological abolition of this control on air-breathing responses. Sustained exercise at 15, 30 and 45 cm s(-1) in a swim tunnel caused significant increases in f(AB) and f(H), from approximately 5 breaths h(-1) and 60 heartbeats min(-1) at the lowest speed, to over 60 breaths h(-1) and 100 beats min(-1) at the highest, respectively. There was a progressive decline in the degree of variation in f(H), around each AB, as f(AB) increased with exercise intensity. Total autonomic blockade abolished all variation in fH during exercise, and around each AB, but f(AB) responses were the same as in untreated animals. Cardiac responses were exclusively due to modulation of inhibitory cholinergic tone, which varied from >100% at the lowest speed to <10% at the highest. Cholinergic blockade had no effect on f(AB) compared to untreated fish. Excitatory beta-adrenergic tone was approximately 20% and did not vary with swimming speed, but its blockade increased f(AB) at all speeds, compared to untreated animals. This reveals complex effects of autonomic control on air-breathing during exercise in C. gariepinus, which deserve further investigation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.  
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  ISSN 1095-6433 ISBN Médium  
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Auteur (up) de Verdal, H.; Mekkawy, W.; Lind, C.E.; Vandeputte, M.; Chatain, B.; Benzie, J.A.H. doi  openurl
  Titre Measuring individual feed efficiency and its correlations with performance traits in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquaculture  
  Volume 468 Numéro Pages 489-495  
  Mots-Clés bream sparus-aurata; compensatory growth; conversion efficiency; diet environments; Feed conversion ratio; Feed efficiency; Feed intake; fish-meal; food; genetic-improvement; growth; Nile tilapia; rainbow-trout; Repeatability; salmon salmo-salar; selection; Sex  
  Résumé Estimating individual feed intake of fish held in groups has long been a challenge precluding precise knowledge of the individual variation of feed efficiency (FE) in fish. In this study, counts of the number of feed pellets (1.63 mg on average) eaten by individual tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) held in 8 mixed sex groups of 15 fish were measured from video recordings made over a period of 10 days where fish were fed twice daily to achieve compensatory growth after 10 days of fasting. The initial body weight of the fish was 9.77 +/- 2.03 g. Accumulated measures of feed intake (FI) over 11 meals were found to achieve 95% repeatability and a high accuracy of estimation of FI. During the FI measurement period, the average fish growth was 12.0 +/- 3.6 g, feed intake was 0.99 g day (-1), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was 0.86 +/- 0.20. FI differences accounted for 56% of the observed individual growth variations, and 44% was related to individual variations of FE. On average males grew 24.2% faster than females but consumed 12.1% more feed. Males showed an 11.7% better FCR than females, whereas residual feed intake (RFI) differences were not significant between sexes. FCR and RFI were moderately and significantly correlated (0.58 +/- 0.06) but FCR and FI, and body weight gain (BWG) and RFI, were not, highlighting the complex relationships between feed efficiency traits. The approach described here demonstrates a means to accurately investigate FE traits in fish and to assess the potential for their genetic improvement. Statement of relevance: Feed efficiency has strong economic and environmental impact. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.  
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Auteur (up) de Verdal, H.; O'Connell, C.M.; Mekkawy, W.; Vandeputte, M.; Chatain, B.; Begout, M.-L.; Benzie, J.A.H. doi  openurl
  Titre Agonistic behaviour and feed efficiency in juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Type Article scientifique
  Année 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquaculture  
  Volume 505 Numéro Pages 271-279  
  Mots-Clés Agonstic behaviour; arctic charr; atlantic salmon; brain serotonergic activity; brown trout; conversion ratio; Correlation; dominance relationships; Feed efficiency; food acquisition; genetic-improvement; Nile tilapia; Performances; salvelinus-alpinus; social-status  
  Résumé Given the strong effects of behavioural hierarchies on growth in many cultured species and the key role of feed efficiency in aquaculture economics, understanding the nature of the interaction of these variables is important for the sustainability of aquaculture. The relationship between agonistic behaviour, growth and feed efficiency in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was studied by rearing 120 fish in eight aquaria. Fish were video-recorded to estimate the occurrence of agonistic behaviour during a fasting and a refeeding period. Growth, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency (FCE – calculated as the inverse of feed conversion ratio (FCR)) were subsequently measured individually for each fish. Fish showed 58% less agonistic traits during the fasting period compared to the feeding period, but generally, an aggressive fish during the fasting period was also aggressive during the refeeding period. The nature of agonistic behaviours between individuals was used to assess the presence of hierarchical relationships between fish. There were dominance hierarchies established in each experimental aquarium that despite minor shifts were maintained throughout the experiment. Agonistic behaviours were strongly correlated with each other, the aggression Index (AI) and with hierarchy rank. PCA analysis of the agonistic behaviours summarising the behavioural information showed little or no correlation between agonistic behaviour, fish growth or FCE. FCE was correlated with body weight gain (BWG). These results suggest that agonistic interactions in juvenile Nile tilapia do not have a large impact on growth and feed conversion efficiency.  
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