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Auteur (up) Gruss, A.; Kaplan, D.; Guenette, S.; Roberts, C.M.; Botsford, L.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Consequences of adult and juvenile movement for marine protected areas Type Article scientifique
  Année 2011 Publication Revue Abrégée Biological Conservation  
  Volume 144 Numéro Pages 692-702  
  Mots-Clés areas; Density-dependent; Density-independent; Dynamic; marine; movement; (MPAs); MPAs; protected; Spillover; Targeted  
  Résumé Adult and juvenile mobility has a considerable influence on the functioning of marine protected areas. It is recognized that adult and juvenile movement reduces the core benefits of protected areas, namely protecting the full age-structure of marine populations, while at the same time perhaps improving fisheries yield over the no-reserve situation through export of individuals from protected areas. Nevertheless, the study of the consequences of movement on protected area functioning is unbalanced. Significant attention has been paid to the influence of certain movement patterns, such as diffusive movement and home ranges, while the impacts of others, such as density-dependent movements and ontogenetic migrations, have been relatively ignored. Here we review the diversity of density-independent and density-dependent movement patterns, as well as what is currently known about their consequences for the conservation and fisheries effects of marine protected areas. We highlight a number of 'partially addressed' issues in marine protected area research, such as the effects of reserves targeting specific life phases, and a number of essentially unstudied issues, such as density-dependent movements, nomadism, ontogenetic migrations, behavioral polymorphism and 'dynamic' reserves that adjust location as a realtime response to habitat changes. Assessing these issues will be essential to creating effective marine protected area networks for mobile species and accurately assessing reserve impacts on these species.  
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  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 141  
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Auteur (up) Hill, S.L.; Hinke, J.; Bertrand, S.; Fritz, L.; Furness, R.W.; Ianelli, J.N.; Murphy, M.; Oliveros‐Ramos, R.; Pichegru, L.; Sharp, R.; Stillman, R.A.; Wright, P.J.; Ratcliffe, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Reference points for predators will progress ecosystem-based management of fisheries Type Article scientifique
  Année 2020 Publication Revue Abrégée Fish and Fisheries  
  Volume 21 Numéro 2 Pages 368-378  
  Mots-Clés adaptive management; Aichi Biodiversity Targets; ecosystem interactions; indirect impacts; management strategy; precautionary approach  
  Résumé Ecosystem-based management of fisheries aims to allow sustainable use of fished stocks while keeping impacts upon ecosystems within safe ecological limits. Both the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets promote these aims. We evaluate implementation of ecosystem-based management in six case-study fisheries in which potential indirect impacts upon bird or mammal predators of fished stocks are well publicized and well studied. In particular, we consider the components needed to enable management strategies to respond to information from predator monitoring. Although such information is available in all case-studies, only one has a reference point defining safe ecological limits for predators and none has a method to adjust fishing activities in response to estimates of the state of the predator population. Reference points for predators have been developed outside the fisheries management context, but adoption by fisheries managers is hindered a lack of clarity about management objectives and uncertainty about how fishing affects predator dynamics. This also hinders the development of adjustment methods because these generally require information on the state of ecosystem variables relative to reference points. Nonetheless, most of the case-studies include precautionary measures to limit impacts on predators. These measures are not used tactically and therefore risk excessive restrictions on sustainable use. Adoption of predator reference points to inform tactical adjustment of precautionary measures would be an appropriate next step towards ecosystem-based management.  
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  ISSN 1467-2979 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes WOS:000505754400001 Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2684  
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Auteur (up) Marinesque, S.; Kaplan, D.; Rodwell, L.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Global implementation of marine protected areas : is the developing world being left behind ? Type Article scientifique
  Année 2012 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Policy  
  Volume 36 Numéro 3 Pages 727-737  
  Mots-Clés Conservation targets; Developing world; Gap analysis; International policy; Marine protected areas (MPAs); Meta-analysis  
  Résumé While the global network of marine protected areas (MPAs) has recently been evaluated in the light of bio-geographic targets, there has been no attempt to evaluate the relative conservation efforts made by the different nations with regards to their level of socio-economic development. Using information mostly gathered from the world database on protected areas (WDPA), this paper gives a comparative assessment of MPA progress in countries from different economic categories, ranging from advanced economies to least developed countries (LDCs). Potentially explanatory socio-economic and environmental factors, such as fishing activity and existence of vulnerable marine ecosystems, for variability between nations in the level of MPA implementation are also explored. Existing MPA databases demonstrate a clear gap between developed and developing nations in MPA establishment, with advanced economies accounting for two thirds of the global MPA network. Patterns of MPA use, however, remain extremely heterogeneous between countries within each development group. International agreements on marine conservation, above and beyond the influence of country socioeconomic and environmental profiles, are identified as a stimulating factor to MPA implementation. The level dependence on marine resource extraction appears to impede MPA implementation, though the relationship is not statistically significant due to large heterogeneity among countries. Leading developed nations increasingly use MPAs to designate integrated and adaptive management areas, and implementation of large “no-take” reserves in relatively-pristine overseas areas continues to accelerate. These analyses highlight certain limitations regarding our ability to assess the true conservation effectiveness of the existing global MPA network and the need for improved indicators of MPA restrictions and management efforts.  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0308-597x ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 204  
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Auteur (up) Monsarrat, S.; Pennino, M.G.; Smith, T.D.; Reeves, R.R.; Meynard, C.N.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rodrigues, A.S.L. doi  openurl
  Titre A spatially explicit estimate of the prewhaling abundance of the endangered North Atlantic right whale Type Article scientifique
  Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Conserv. Biol.  
  Volume 30 Numéro 4 Pages 783-791  
  Mots-Clés animals; areas de alimentacion; caza de ballenas; Conservation; Eubalaena; eubalaena-glacialis; feeding grounds; generalized additive modeling; historical baseline; historical data; linea base historica; modelado aditivo generalizado; models; pacific; population size; records; tamano de poblacion; target; whaling  
  Résumé The North Atlantic right whale (NARW) (Eubalaena glacialis) is one of the world's most threatened whales. It came close to extinction after nearly a millennium of exploitation and currently persists as a population of only approximately 500 individuals. Setting appropriate conservation targets for this species requires an understanding of its historical population size, as a baseline for measuring levels of depletion and progress toward recovery. This is made difficult by the scarcity of records over this species' long whaling history. We sought to estimate the preexploitation population size of the North Atlantic right whale and understand how this species was distributed across its range. We used a spatially explicit data set on historical catches of North Pacific right whales (NPRWs) (Eubalaena japonica) to model the relationship between right whale relative density and the environment during the summer feeding season. Assuming the 2 right whale species select similar environments, we projected this model to the North Atlantic to predict how the relative abundance of NARWs varied across their range. We calibrated these relative abundances with estimates of the NPRW total prewhaling population size to obtain high and low estimates for the overall NARW population size prior to exploitation. The model predicted 9,075-21,328 right whales in the North Atlantic. The current NARW population is thus <6% of the historical North Atlantic carrying capacity and has enormous potential for recovery. According to the model, in June-September NARWs concentrated in 2 main feeding areas: east of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and in the Norwegian Sea. These 2 areas may become important in the future as feeding grounds and may already be used more regularly by this endangered species than is thought. Una Estimacion Espacialmente Explicita de la Abundancia Previa a la Caza de la Ballena Franca del Atlantico Norte en Peligro de Extincion La ballena franca del Atlantico Norte (BFAN) (Eubalaena glacialis) es una de las ballenas mas amenazadas del mundo. Su extincion estuvo proxima despues de casi un milenio de explotacion y actualmente persiste una poblacion de aproximadamente 500 individuos. El establecimiento de objetivos de conservacion apropiados para esta especie requiere del entendimiento del tamano historico de la poblacion como la linea base para la medida de los niveles de disminucion y el progreso hacia la recuperacion. Esto se dificulta por la escasez de registros sobre la larga historia de la caza de esta especie. Buscamos estimar el tamano poblacional previo a la explotacion de la ballena franca del Atlantico Norte y entender como se distribuia esta especie a lo largo de su extension. Usamos un conjunto de datos espacialmente explicitos sobre las capturas historicas de las ballenas francas del Pacifico Norte (BFPN) (Eubalaena japonica) para modelar la relacion entre la densidad relativa de ballenas francas y el ambiente durante la temporada de verano de alimentacion. Cuando asumimos que las dos especies de ballenas francas seleccionan ambientes similares, pudimos proyectar este modelo hacia el Atlantico Norte y asi poder predecir como la abundancia relativa de las BFAN vario a lo largo de su extension. Calibramos estas abundancias relativas con los estimados del tamano poblacional total previo a la caza de las BFPN y asi obtener estimados altos y bajos para el tamano poblacional general de las BFAN previo a la explotacion. El modelo predijo la existencia de 9, 075 – 21, 328 ballenas francas en el Atlantico Norte. La poblacion actual de BFAN es entonces <6 % a la capacidad de carga historica del Atlantico Norte, por lo que tiene un potencial enorme para la recuperacion. De acuerdo al modelo, entre junio y septiembre, las BFAN se concentraron en dos areas de alimentacion principales: al este de los Grandes Bancos de Terranova y en el Mar de Noruega. Estas dos areas pueden volverse importantes en el futuro como sitios de alimentacion y puede que ya sean usadas por esta especie de manera mas regular de lo que se cree. Resumen  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0888-8892 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1641  
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Auteur (up) Pendleton, L.H.; Ahmadia, G.N.; Browman, H.I.; Thurstan, R.H.; Kaplan, D.M.; Bartolino, V. doi  openurl
  Titre Debating the effectiveness of marine protected areas Introduction Type Article scientifique
  Année 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée ICES J. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 75 Numéro 3 Pages 1156-1159  
  Mots-Clés Aichi; benefits; conservation; fisheries; management; monitoring; reserves; shortfalls; spillover; sustainable development goals; targets  
  Résumé Increasing the size and number of marine protected areas (MPAs) is widely seen as a way to meet ambitious biodiversity and sustainable development goals. Yet, debate still exists on the effectiveness of MPAs in achieving ecological and societal objectives. Although the literature provides significant evidence of the ecological effects of MPAs within their boundaries, much remains to be learned about the ecological and social effects of MPAs on regional and seascape scales. Key to improving the effectiveness of MPAs, and ensuring that they achieve desired outcomes, will be better monitoring that includes ecological and social data collected inside and outside of MPAs. This can lead to more conclusive evidence about what is working, what is not, and why. Eight authors were asked to write about their experiences with MPA effectiveness. The authors were instructed to clearly define “effectiveness” and discuss the degree to which they felt MPAs had achieved or failed to be effective. Essays were exchanged among authors and each was invited to write a shorter “counterpoint.” The exercise shows that, while experiences are diverse, many authors found common ground regarding the role of MPAs in achieving conservation targets. This exchange of perspectives is intended to promote reflection, analysis, and dialogue as a means for improving MPA design, assessment, and integration with other conservation tools.  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1054-3139 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2367  
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