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Auteur (up) De Wit, R.; Leruste, A.; Le Fur, I.; Sy, M.M.; Bec, B.; Ouisse, V.; Derolez, V.; Rey-Valette, H.
Titre A Multidisciplinary Approach for Restoration Ecology of Shallow Coastal Lagoons, a Case Study in South France Type Article scientifique
Année 2020 Publication Revue Abrégée Front. Ecol. Evol.
Volume 8 Numéro Pages
Mots-Clés conservation; DPSIR (Driving forces-Pressure-State-Impacts-Responses) framework; ecological indices; ecological restoration; Ecosystem trajectories; restoration ecology; Water Quality; WFD (Water Framework Directive)
Résumé By the end of the twentieth century, many of the coastal lagoons along the French Mediterranean coast showed insufficient water quality and degraded ecosystem states due to anthropogenic impacts. Among these, nutrient over-enrichment, resulting in eutrophication, has been a major concern. The Water Framework Directive of the E.U. (WFD) has initiated public action to improve their water quality and ecosystem state using an approach rooted in restoration ecology. Here we analyse how this has been applied for the coastal lagoons in South France, considering eutrophication as an example of ecosystem degradation and oligotrophication as the corresponding way for ecological restoration of the eutrophied coastal lagoons. Oligotrophication trajectories, initiated by the reduction of external nutrient loading, have resulted in a quick recovery (i.e. within 3 years) of integrative water column variables (Chlorophyll a, total N and P). The biomass of phytoplankton dropped very quickly showing concomitant changes in their community compositions. Starting from hypertrophic systems, the oligotrophication trajectory is described by a sequence of three ecosystem states dominated respectively by (i) phytoplankton with bare non-vegetated sediments, (ii) opportunistic macroalgae, (iii) angiosperm and perennial macroalgae, punctuated by regime shifts between these ecosystem states. Nevertheless, the latter regime shift has not been observed for the most degraded ecosystems after 10-years oligotrophication. The N and P accumulated in sediments during eutrophication may also retard the ecological restoration. In shallow freshwater lakes, the phytoplankton-dominated and the angiosperm-dominated states are also characteristic for highly-degraded and fully-restored ecosystems states, respectively. In contrast, opportunistic macroalgae do not bloom in these systems. Hence, the multiple stable state model, used successfully for these lakes, cannot be applied straightforwardly for coastal lagoons. To be successful, ecological restoration should consider societal questions as according the DPSIR framework it typically is a response of society. Local citizens and highly-involved stakeholders strongly value the coastal lagoons and attribute very high importance to their regulating ecosystem services (ESs). Different stakeholder profiles are related to different perceptions and appreciations of cultural ESs. Finally, more studies are needed to asses compatibility and incongruencies between the WFD and the Habitats directives, as both apply to coastal lagoons.
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ISSN 2296-701x ISBN Médium
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Auteur (up) Garcon, V.; Karstensen, J.; Palacz, A.; Telszewski, M.; Aparco Lara, T.; Breitburg, D.; Chavez, F.; Coelho, P.; Cornejo-D'Ottone, M.; Santos, C.; Fiedler, B.; Gallo, N.D.; Gregoire, M.; Gutierrez, D.; Hernandez-Ayon, M.; Isensee, K.; Koslow, T.; Levin, L.; Marsac, F.; Maske, H.; Mbaye, B.C.; Montes, I.; Naqvi, W.; Pearlman, J.; Pinto, E.; Pitcher, G.; Pizarro, O.; Rose, K.; Shenoy, D.; Van der Plas, A.; Vito, M.R.; Weng, K.
Titre Multidisciplinary Observing in the World Ocean's Oxygen Minimum Zone Regions: From Climate to Fish – The VOICE Initiative Type Article scientifique
Année 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée Front. Mar. Sci.
Volume 6 Numéro Pages 722
Mots-Clés continental-shelf; demersal fishes; ecosystem; growth; habitat compression; humboldt current system; hypoxia; multidisciplinary; ocean observing system; oxycline; oxygen minimum zones; readiness level; reproduction; responses; variability
Résumé Multidisciplinary ocean observing activities provide critical ocean information to satisfy ever-changing socioeconomic needs and require coordinated implementation. The upper oxycline (transition between high and low oxygen waters) is fundamentally important for the ecosystem structure and can be a useful proxy for multiple observing objectives connected to eastern boundary systems (EBSs) that neighbor oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). The variability of the oxycline and its impact on the ecosystem (VOICE) initiative demonstrates how societal benefits drive the need for integration and optimization of biological, biogeochemical, and physical components of regional ocean observing related to EBS. In liaison with the Global Ocean Oxygen Network, VOICE creates a roadmap toward observation-model syntheses for a comprehensive understanding of selected oxycline-dependent objectives. Local to global effects, such as habitat compression or deoxygenation trends, prompt for comprehensive observing of the oxycline on various space and time scales, and for an increased awareness of its impact on ecosystem services. Building on the Framework for Ocean Observing (FOO), we present a first readiness level assessment for ocean observing of the oxycline in EBS. This was to determine current ocean observing design and future needs in EBS regions (e.g., the California Current System, the Equatorial Eastern Pacific off Ecuador, the Peru-Chile Current system, the Northern Benguela off Namibia, etc.) building on the FOO strategy. We choose regional champions to assess the ocean observing design elements proposed in the FOO, namely, requirement processes, coordination of observational elements, and data management and information products and the related best practices. The readiness level for the FOO elements was derived for each EBS through a similar and very general ad hoc questionnaire. Despite some weaknesses in the questionnaire design and its completion, an assessment was achievable. We found that fisheries and ecosystem management are a societal requirement for all regions, but maturity levels of observational elements and data management and information products differ substantially. Identification of relevant stakeholders, developing strategies for readiness level improvements, and building and sustaining infrastructure capacity to implement these strategies are fundamental milestones for the VOICE initiative over the next 2-5 years and beyond.
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Auteur (up) Garrido, M.; Cecchi, P.; Vaquer, A.; Pasqualini, V.
Titre Effects of sample conservation on assessments of the photosynthetic efficiency of phytoplankton using PAM fluorometry Type Article scientifique
Année 2013 Publication Revue Abrégée Deep-Sea Res. Part I-Oceanogr. Res. Pap.
Volume 71 Numéro Pages 38-48
Mots-Clés diatom, quantum yield, temperature, parameters; PAM fluorescence, Phytoplankton, Temperature Biguglia lagoon; physiological-responses, marine-phytoplankton, oxygen evolution, benthic; rapid light curves, chlorophyll-a fluorescence, in-vivo,
Résumé Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry is now a widely used method for the assessment of phytoplankton fitness, with an increasing popularity in field assessments. It is usually recommended to carry out measurements swiftly after collection, but the number of samples and analytical procedures needed to obtain valuable datasets sometimes makes immediate analysis impracticable, forcing delays between fluorescence measurements. Conservation conditions of samples before analysis may potentially affect their photosynthetic performances but no formal study documenting such impacts appears available in the literature. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of storage conditions (temperature, duration) on photosynthetic parameters in different phytoplankton communities (characterized in situ by a BBE fluoroprobe) sampled during summer in different environmental locations in a Mediterranean lagoon (Biguglia lagoon, Corsica, France). PAM-fluorescence parameters were measured after three different conservation durations (2-4 h, 6-8 h and 10-12 h after collection) on samples stored at three different temperatures (15 degrees C, 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C). Results showed that storage at the highest temperature severely impacted photosynthetic parameters, with cumulative effects as storage duration increased. For phytoplankton samples collected in warm or tropical environments, storage at “room temperature” (25 degrees C) only appeared a valid option if measurements have to be carried out strictly within a very short delay. Inversely, cooling the samples (i.e. conservation at 15 degrees C) did not induce significant effects, independently of storage duration. Cooling appeared the best solution when sampling-to-analysis delay goes over a few hours. Long-term storage ( > 8 h) should definitively be avoided. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0967-0637 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 552
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Auteur (up) Geffard, O.; Xuereb, B.; Chaumot, A.; Geffard, A.; Biagianti, S.; Noel, C.; Abbaci, K.; Garric, J.; Charmantier, G.; Charmantier-Daures, M.
Titre Ovarian cycle and embryonic development in gammarus fossarum: Application for reproductive toxicity assessment Type Article scientifique
Année 2010 Publication Revue Abrégée Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
Volume 29 Numéro 10 Pages 2249-2259
Mots-Clés Endocrine disruption; Gammarus fossarum; Molt cycle; Reproductive cycle; Reproductive toxicity; acetylcholinesterase activity; amphipod monoporeia-affinis; aquatic environment; behavioral-responses; crustacea-amphipoda; estuarine sediments; melita-plumulosa zeidler; multilevel assessment; pulex crustacea; test
Résumé Among freshwater invertebrates, Gammarus fossarum is an important test organism and is currently used in ecotoxicology for acute and chronic assays; nevertheless, reproductive toxicity test methods are not yet available for these species. In the present study, the reproductive cycle in Gammarus fossarum was characterized in order to propose a reproductive toxicity test encompassing molting, follicle growth, and embryonic development that will provide a better understanding of the mode of action of chemicals disrupting these hormone-regulated processes. A detailed description of the reproductive cycle in Gammarus fossarum was obtained. As in some amphipods, molt and reproductive cycles of G. fossarum females occur concurrently, lasting 30 d at 12 C. Each molt stage is characterized by a specific marsupial embryonic development stage and the size of developing follicles visible on the ovarian membrane. Based on these results, a 21 -d reproductive toxicity test is proposed for this species. This new bioassay was applied to identify the specific impact of different stressors: cadmium, methomyl, nonylphenol, and a starvation diet. Good reproducibility was obtained for different endpoints under control conditions and throughout the experiments. Preliminary robust reference values or benchmarks were proposed for these endpoints. Cadmium was found to specially inhibit secondary vitellogenesis. Nonylphenol had a specific concentration-dependent effect on embryonic development, with an increase in the percent abnormality from a concentration of 0.05 mu g/L. A restricted food diet led to a significant delay in the molt cycle, which in turn induced inhibition of secondary vitellogenesis. Environ Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2249-2259. (C) 2010 SETAC
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0730-7268 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 758
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Auteur (up) Goetze, J.; Langlois, T.; Claudet, J.; Januchowski-Hartley, F.; Jupiter, S.D.
Titre Periodically harvested closures require full protection of vulnerable species and longer closure periods Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Biol. Conserv.
Volume 203 Numéro Pages 67-74
Mots-Clés areas; biomass; Fiji; Fisheries management; life-history; Locally managed marine areas; Marine conservation; marine reserves; predatory fish; Recovery; reef fish communities; responses; small-scale fisheries; stereo-video; vulnerability
Résumé Periodically harvested closures (PHCs) are small fisheries closures with objectives such as sustaining fisheries and conserving biodiversity and have become one of the most common forms of nearshore marine management in the Western Pacific. Although PHCs can provide both short-term conservation and fisheries benefits, their potential as a long-term management strategy remains unclear. Through empirical assessment of a single harvest event in each of five PHCs, we determined whether targeted fishes that differ in their vulnerability to fishing recovered to pre-harvest conditions (the state prior to last harvest) and demonstrated post-harvest recovery benefits after 1 year of re-closure. For low and moderately vulnerable species, two PHCs provided significant pre-harvest benefits and one provided significant post-harvest recovery benefits, suggesting a contribution to longer-term sustainability. PHCs with a combination of high compliance and longer closing times are more likely to provide fisheries benefits and recover from harvest events, however, no benefits were observed across any PHCs for highly vulnerable species. We recommend PHCs have longer closure periods before being harvested and species that are highly vulnerable to fishing (e.g. large species of; grouper, wrasse and parrotfish) are avoided during harvests to avoid overexploitation and increase the sustainability of small-scale fisheries. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1695
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