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Auteur (up) Annasawmy, P.; Ternon, J.F.; Marsac, F.; Cherel, Y.; Behagle, N.; Roudaut, G.; Lebourges-Dhaussy, A.; Demarcq, H.; Moloney, C.L.; Jaquemet, S.; Menard, F.
Titre Micronekton diel migration, community composition and trophic position within two biogeochemical provinces of the South West Indian Ocean: Insight from acoustics and stable isotopes Type Article scientifique
Année 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée Deep-Sea Res. Part I-Oceanogr. Res. Pap.
Volume 138 Numéro Pages 85-97
Mots-Clés Diel vertical migration; East African Coastal province; equatorial atlantic; feeding ecology; Indian South Subtropical Gyre; large pelagic fishes; mesopelagic fishes; mesoscale features; Micronekton; mozambique channel; myctophid fishes; north-atlantic ocean; respiratory carbon; Trophic level; vertical-distribution
Résumé Spatial distribution, community composition and trophic roles of micronekton (crustaceans, fishes and squids) were investigated in the Indian South Subtropical Gyre (ISSG) province and the East African Coastal province (EAFR), by combining acoustic surveys, mid-water trawls and stable isotope analyses from scientific cruises conducted in 2009 and 2010. Mesopelagic micronekton performed diel vertical migrations in both provinces, from deep (400-740 m) to surface (0-200 m) layers at dusk and in the opposite direction at dawn, with some species migrating below 740 m. The EAFR province was more dynamic than the oligotrophic ISSG province, with enhanced eddy activity and enhanced yearly productivity. The active enrichment mechanisms in the EAFR, in terms of available primary production, led to high micronekton acoustic density (as a proxy of micronekton abundance) and large micronekton weight and abundance estimates from trawl data. Particulate organic matter in the EAFR exhibited greater enrichment in C-13 and N-15 compared to the ISSG and, consequently, tissues of selected micronekton organisms in the EAFR were more enriched in N-15 (higher delta N-15 values). In both provinces, micronekton encompassed a wide range of isotopic niches, with large overlaps between species. Micronekton and swordfish in the EAFR had an overlapping range of delta N-15 values, contrasting with the ISSG province where swordfish were two trophic levels higher than the sampled micronekton. Our results provide some evidence that the combined action of riverine input and the dynamics of eddies might influence productivity in the EAFR, and hence the abundance of micronekton and the enrichment of tissues in N-15, compared to the oligotrophic ISSG province.
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ISSN 0967-0637 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2431
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Auteur (up) Blasco, F.R.; McKenzie, D.J.; Taylor, E.W.; Rantin, F.T.
Titre The role of the autonomic nervous system in control of cardiac and air-breathing responses to sustained aerobic exercise in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus Type Article scientifique
Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A-Mol. Integr. Physiol.
Volume 203 Numéro Pages 273-280
Mots-Clés Adrenergic tone; bass dicentrarchus-labrax; cardiorespiratory interactions; Cholinergic tone; Fishes; Heart rate; heart-rate; hoplerythrinus-unitaeniatus; Hypoxia; oxygen-tensions; rainbow-trout; salmo-gairdneri; Swimming; synbranchus-marmoratus
Résumé Clarias gariepinus is a facultative air-breathing catfish that exhibits changes in heart rate (f(H)) associated with air breaths (AB). A transient bradycardia prior to the AB is followed by sustained tachycardia during breath-hold. This study evaluated air-breathing and cardiac responses to sustained aerobic exercise in juveniles (total length similar to 20 cm), and how exercise influenced variations in f(H) associated with AB. In particular, it investigated the role of adrenergic and cholinergic control in cardiac responses, and effects of pharmacological abolition of this control on air-breathing responses. Sustained exercise at 15, 30 and 45 cm s(-1) in a swim tunnel caused significant increases in f(AB) and f(H), from approximately 5 breaths h(-1) and 60 heartbeats min(-1) at the lowest speed, to over 60 breaths h(-1) and 100 beats min(-1) at the highest, respectively. There was a progressive decline in the degree of variation in f(H), around each AB, as f(AB) increased with exercise intensity. Total autonomic blockade abolished all variation in fH during exercise, and around each AB, but f(AB) responses were the same as in untreated animals. Cardiac responses were exclusively due to modulation of inhibitory cholinergic tone, which varied from >100% at the lowest speed to <10% at the highest. Cholinergic blockade had no effect on f(AB) compared to untreated fish. Excitatory beta-adrenergic tone was approximately 20% and did not vary with swimming speed, but its blockade increased f(AB) at all speeds, compared to untreated animals. This reveals complex effects of autonomic control on air-breathing during exercise in C. gariepinus, which deserve further investigation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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ISSN 1095-6433 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1714
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Auteur (up) Jourdan-Pineau, H.; Dupont-Prinet, A.; Claireaux, G.; McKenzie, D.J.
Titre An Investigation of Metabolic Prioritization in the European Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax Type Article scientifique
Année 2010 Publication Revue Abrégée Physiol. Biochem. Zool.
Volume 83 Numéro 1 Pages 68-77
Mots-Clés Hypoxia; blood-flow; cardiac-performance; dynamic action; largemouth bass; oxygen-consumption; respiratory metabolism; salmo-gairdneri; swimming performance; trout oncorhynchus-mykiss
Résumé We investigated the ability of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) to respond simultaneously to the metabolic demands of specific dynamic action (SDA) and aerobic exercise and how this was influenced by moderate hypoxia (50% air saturation). At 3 h after feeding in normoxia at 20 degrees C, SDA raised the instantaneous oxygen uptake (Mo(2)) of sea bass by 47% +/- 18% (mean +/- SEM, N = 7) above their standard metabolic rate (SMR) when fasted. This metabolic load was sustained throughout an incremental exercise protocol until fatigue, with a 14% +/- 3% increase in their maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) relative to their fasted rate. Their incremental critical swimming speed (U(crit)) did not differ between fasted and fed states. Thus, in normoxia, the bass were able to meet the combined oxygen demands of SDA and aerobic exercise. In hypoxia, the sea bass suffered a significant decline in MMR and U(crit) relative to their normoxic performance. The SDA response was similar to normoxia (84% +/- 24% above fasted SMR at 3 h after feeding), but although this load was sustained at low swimming speeds, it gradually disappeared as swimming speed increased. As a result, the hypoxic sea bass exhibited no difference in their fasted versus fed MMR. Hypoxic U(crit) did not, however, differ between fasted and fed states, indicating that the sea bass deferred their SDA to maintain exercise performance. The results demonstrate that, in normoxia, the sea bass possesses excess cardiorespiratory capacity beyond that required for maximal aerobic exercise. The excess capacity is lost when oxygen availability is limited in hypoxia, and, under these conditions, the sea bass prioritize exercise performance. Thus, environmental conditions (oxygen availability) had a significant effect on patterns of oxygen allocation in sea bass and revealed intrinsic prioritization among conflicting metabolic demands.
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1522-2152 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 436
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Auteur (up) Larsen, B.K.; Skov, P.V.; McKenzie, D.J.; Jokumsen, A.
Titre The effects of stocking density and low level sustained exercise on the energetic efficiency of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at 19 degrees C Type Article scientifique
Année 2012 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquaculture
Volume 324 Numéro Pages 226-233
Mots-Clés Energetic budget; Rainbow trout; Rearing density; Routine metabolic rate; Schooling behaviour; Sustained exercise; Welfare; cardiorespiratory performance; charr salvelinus-alpinus; feeding-behavior; fish welfare; food-intake; juvenile arctic charr; oxygen-consumption; physiology; respiratory; salmon salmo-salar; seasonal temperature
Résumé A 9 week growth trial was performed at two rearing densities; low (similar to 25 kg m(-3)) and high (similar to 100 kg m-3), in combination with either static water or a water current corresponding to 0.9 body lengths s(-1), to investigate the effects of density and exercise on the bioenergetics of rainbow trout reared at 19 degrees C, particularly routine metabolic rate (RMR), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The growth trial showed that high rearing density resulted in significantly lower SGR and increased FCR, with no significant alleviating effects of a water current, although slight improvement in both parameters were observed at low density. A significant linear relationship between SGR and FCR suggested that increased energy expenditure was the primary cause of reduced growth. Hourly measurements of instantaneous oxygen uptake, during a period of similar growth (200-350 g), revealed clear effects of the experimental conditions. Energetic budgets were calculated from feed intake and routine metabolic rate (RMR) and revealed that whilst feed intake was similar for all groups, a higher RMR in the high density groups resulted in a higher daily rate of energy utilization for routine activity, leading to slower growth. However, a lower RMR in fish subjected to a current resulted in a greater proportion of energy being retained, leading to significantly higher SGR for the selected period, at both low and high density. Furthermore, the presence of a water current was observed to induce schooling behaviour, which is known to reduce aggression and stress. It is thereby likely that the presence of a current had a positive effect on welfare in addition to its effect on energy metabolism. We conclude that the presence of a water current to some extent could alleviate the negative effects of high density at 19 degrees C, a relatively high temperature experienced in farming of rainbow trout during hot seasons. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0044-8486 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 905
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Auteur (up) Lefevre, S.; Bayley, M.; McKenzie, D.J.
Titre Measuring oxygen uptake in fishes with bimodal respiration Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée J Fish Biol
Volume 88 Numéro 1 Pages 206-231
Mots-Clés intermittent-closed; oxygen consumption; respiratory partitioning; respirometry
Résumé Respirometry is a robust method for measurement of oxygen uptake as a proxy for metabolic rate in fishes, and how species with bimodal respiration might meet their demands from water v. air has interested researchers for over a century. The challenges of measuring oxygen uptake from both water and air, preferably simultaneously, have been addressed in a variety of ways, which are briefly reviewed. These methods are not well-suited for the long-term measurements necessary to be certain of obtaining undisturbed patterns of respiratory partitioning, for example, to estimate traits such as standard metabolic rate. Such measurements require automated intermittent-closed respirometry that, for bimodal fishes, has only recently been developed. This paper describes two approaches in enough detail to be replicated by the interested researcher. These methods are for static respirometry. Measuring oxygen uptake by bimodal fishes during exercise poses specific challenges, which are described to aid the reader in designing experiments. The respiratory physiology and behaviour of air-breathing fishes is very complex and can easily be influenced by experimental conditions, and some general considerations are listed to facilitate the design of experiments. Air breathing is believed to have evolved in response to aquatic hypoxia and, probably, associated hypercapnia. The review ends by considering what realistic hypercapnia is, how hypercapnic tropical waters can become and how this might influence bimodal animals' gas exchange.
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1095-8649 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1536
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