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Auteur (up) Andrello, M.; Mouillot, D.; Somot, S.; Thuiller, W.; Manel, S.
Titre Additive effects of climate change on connectivity between marine protected areas and larval supply to fished areas Type Article scientifique
Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Diversity Distrib.
Volume 21 Numéro 2 Pages 139-150
Mots-Clés Biophysical model; conservation planning; Epinephelus marginatus; larval dispersal; larval growth rate; reproductive timing
Résumé Aim To study the combined effects of climate change on connectivity between marine protected areas (MPAs) and larval supply to the continental shelf. Location The Mediterranean Sea, where sea surface temperatures are expected to strongly increase by the end of the 21st century, represents an archetypal situation with a dense MPA network but resource overexploitation outside. Methods Using an individual-based mechanistic model of larval transport, forced with an emission-driven regional climate change scenario for the Mediterranean Sea, we explored the combined effects of changes in hydrodynamics, adult reproductive timing and larval dispersal on the connectivity among MPAs and their ability to seed fished areas with larvae. Results We show that, over the period 1970–2099, larval dispersal distances would decrease by 10%, the continental shelf area seeded with larvae would decrease by 3% and the larval retention fraction would increase by 5%, resulting in higher concentration of larvae in smaller areas of the continental shelf. However, connectance within the MPA network would increase by 5% as more northern MPAs would become suitable for reproduction with increasing temperatures. We also show that the effects of changes in adult reproductive timing and larval dispersal on connectivity patterns are additive. Main conclusions Climate change will influence connectivity and the effectiveness of MPA networks, and should receive more attention in future conservation planning and large-scale population dynamics.
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ISSN 1472-4642 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1282
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Auteur (up) Stier, A.; Viblanc, V.A.; Massemin-Challet, S.; Handrich, Y.; Zahn, S.; Rojas, E.R.; Saraux, C.; Le Vaillant, M.; Prud'homme, O.; Grosbellet, E.; Robin, J.-P.; Bize, P.; Criscuolo, F.
Titre Starting with a handicap: phenotypic differences between early- and late-born king penguin chicks and their survival correlates Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Functional Ecology
Volume Numéro Pages
Mots-Clés corticosterone; early-life conditions; growth; individual quality; oxidative stress; phenotypic plasticity; reproductive timing; telomere
Résumé * The exceptionally long (c. 11 months) growth period of king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is interrupted by the Austral winter. As a consequence, penguin chicks born late in the breeding season have little time to build-up their energy reserves before the drastic energy bottleneck they experience during winter and face greater risks of mortality than early-born chicks. * Whereas it is well known that breeding adults alternate between early- and late-breeding attempts, little is known on the phenotype of early- and late-chicks, and on the potential existence of specific adaptive phenotypic responses in late-born individuals. * We investigated phenotypic differences between early- and late-chicks and tested their survival correlates both before the winter and at fledgling. Chicks were sampled 10 days after hatching to measure body mass, plasma corticosterone levels, oxidative stress parameters and telomere length. * Late-chicks were heavier than early-chicks at day 10. Late-chicks also had higher corticosterone and oxidative stress levels, shorter telomere lengths and suffered from higher mortality rates than early-chicks. For both early- and late-chicks, high body mass close to hatching was a strong predictor of survival up to, and over, the winter period. * In late but not early-chicks, high corticosterone levels and long telomeres were significant predictors of survival up to winter and fledging, respectively. * Our study provides evidence that late- and early-king penguin chicks showed marked phenotypic differences 10 days after hatching. We provide an integrative discussion on whether these differences may be adaptive or not, and to what extent they may be driven by active maternal effects, indirectly induced by environmental effects, or stem from individual differences in parental quality.
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ISSN 1365-2435 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 319
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