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Auteur Marques, R.; Darnaude, A.M.; Crochemore, S.; Bouvier, C.; Bonnet, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Molecular approach indicates consumption of jellyfish by commercially important fish species in a coastal Mediterranean lagoon Type Article scientifique
  Année 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Environmental Research  
  Volume 152 Numéro Pages 104787  
  Mots-Clés Eel; Gut content; Medusae; Polyps; Predation; Quantitative PCR; Seabream; Thau lagoon  
  Résumé Until recently, jellyfish have been ignored as an important source of food, due to their low nutritional value. Here, quantitative PCR was used to detect and quantify the DNA of the jellyfish Aurelia coerulea in the gut contents of commercially important fish species from the Thau Lagoon. Individuals from five fish species were collected during two different periods: the bloom period, when the pelagic stages of A. coerulea are abundant, and the post-bloom period, when only the benthic stage – polyps – is present in the lagoon. The DNA of A. coerulea was detected in the guts of 41.9% of the fish analysed, belonging to four different species. The eel Anguilla anguilla and the seabream Sparus aurata were important jellyfish consumers during the bloom and post-bloom periods, respectively. These results provide new insights on the potential control of jellyfish populations and on jellyfish importance as a food source for exploited fishes.  
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  ISSN 0141-1136 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2615  
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Auteur Maury, O.; Poggiale, J.-C. url  openurl
  Titre From individuals to populations to communities: A dynamic energy budget model of marine ecosystem size-spectrum including life history diversity Type Article scientifique
  Année 2013 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Theoretical Biology  
  Volume 324 Numéro Pages 52-71  
  Mots-Clés biodiversity; Dynamic Energy Budget theory; predation; Schooling; Size spectrum  
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  ISSN 0022-5193 ISBN Médium  
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  Notes <p>\textbackslashtextlessp\textbackslashtextgreaterIndividual metabolism, predator–prey relationships, and the role of biodiversity are major factors underlying the dynamics of food webs and their response to environmental variability. Despite their crucial, complementary and interacting influences, they are usually not considered simultaneously in current marine ecosystem models. In an attempt to fill this gap and determine if these factors and their interaction are sufficient to allow realistic community structure and dynamics to emerge, we formulate a mathematical model of the size-structured dynamics of marine communities which integrates mechanistically individual, population and community levels. The model represents the transfer of energy generated in both time and size by an infinite number of interacting fish species spanning from very small to very large species. It is based on standard individual level assumptions of the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB) as well as important ecological processes such as opportunistic size-based predation and competition for food. Resting on the inter-specific body-size scaling relationships of the DEB theory, the diversity of life-history traits (i.e. biodiversity) is explicitly integrated. The stationary solutions of the model as well as the transient solutions arising when environmental signals (e.g. variability of primary production and temperature) propagate through the ecosystem are studied using numerical simulations. It is shown that in the absence of density-dependent feedback processes, the model exhibits unstable oscillations. Density-dependent schooling probability and schooling-dependent predatory and disease mortalities are proposed to be important stabilizing factors allowing stationary solutions to be reached. At the community level, the shape and slope of the obtained quasi-linear stationary spectrum matches well with empirical studies. When oscillations of primary production are simulated, the model predicts that the variability propagates along the spectrum in a given frequency-dependent size range before decreasing for larger sizes. At the species level, the simulations show that small and large species dominate the community successively (small species being more abundant at small sizes and large species being more abundant at large sizes) and that the total biomass of a species decreases with its maximal size which again corroborates empirical studies. Our results indicate that the simultaneous consideration of individual growth and reproduction, size-structured trophic interactions, the diversity of life-history traits and a density-dependent stabilizing process allow realistic community structure and dynamics to emerge without any arbitrary prescription. As a logical consequence of our model construction and a basis for future studies, we define the function Φ as the relative contribution of each species to the total biomass of the ecosystem, for any given size. We argue that this function is a measure of the functional role of biodiversity characterizing the impact of the structure of the community (its species composition) on its function (the relative proportions of losses, dissipation and biological work).\textbackslashtextless/p\textbackslashtextgreater</p> Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 245  
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Auteur Chassot, E.; Duplisea, D.; Hammill, M.; Caskenette, A.; Bousquet, N.; Lambert, Y.; Stenson, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Role of predation by harp seals Pagophilus groenlandicus in the collapse and non-recovery of northern Gulf of St. Lawrence cod Gadus morhua Type Article scientifique
  Année 2009 Publication Revue Abrégée Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser.  
  Volume 379 Numéro Pages 279-297  
  Mots-Clés cod; functional response; harp seal; model; predation; recovery  
  Résumé A statistical catch-at-age model was developed to assess the effects of predation by the northwest Atlantic harp seal population on northern Gulf of St. Lawrence cod by estimating the relative importance of different sources of mortality that affected the stock during a period of collapse and non-recovery. Cod recruitment at age 1 is modeled via a non-linear stock-recruitment relationship based on total egg production and accounts for changes in female length-at-maturity and cod condition. Natural mortality other than seal predation also depends on cod condition used as an integrative index of changes in environmental conditions. The linkage between seals and cod is modeled through a multi-age functional response that was derived from the reconstruction of the seal diet using morphometric relationships and stomach contents of more than 200 seals collected between 1998 and 2001. The model was fitted following a maximum likelihood estimation approach to a scientific survey abundance index (1984 to 2006). Model results show that the collapse of the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence cod stock was mainly due to the combination of high fishing mortality rates and poor environmental conditions in the early to mid-1990s contributing to the current state of recruitment overfishing. The increase in harp seal abundance during 1984 to 2006 was reflected by an increase in predation mortality for the young cod age-groups targeted by seals. Although current levels of predation mortality affect cod spawning biomass, the lack of recovery of the NGSL cod stock seems mainly due to the very poor recruitment.  
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  ISSN 0171-8630 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 15  
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Auteur Potier, M.; Ménard, F.; Benivary, H.D.; Sabatié, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Lenght and weight estimates from diagnostic hard part structures of fish, crustacea and cephalopods forage species in the western Indian Ocean Type Article scientifique
  Année 2011 Publication Revue Abrégée Environmental Biology of Fishes  
  Volume Numéro Pages  
  Mots-Clés Analyse Quantitative; Contenu Stomacal; Espece Pelagique; Poisson Marin; predation; Relation Taille Poids; Structure Trophique  
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  ISSN 1573-5133 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 159  
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Auteur Travers, M.; Shin, Y.-J.; Jennings, S.; Machu, E.; Huggett, J.A.; Field, J.G.; Cury, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Two-way coupling versus one-way forcing of plankton and fish models to predict ecosystem changes in the Benguela Type Article scientifique
  Année 2009 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecological Modelling  
  Volume 220 Numéro 21 Pages 3089-3099  
  Mots-Clés Benguela upwelling; Ecem 07; End-to-end approach; food web; marine; Marine ecosystem model coupling; Predation  
  Résumé 'End-to-end' models have been adopted in an attempt to capture more of the processes that influence the ecology of marine ecosystems and to make system wide predictions of the effects of fishing and climate change. Here, we develop an end-to-end model by coupling existing models that describe the dynamics of low (ROMS-N(2)P(2)Z(2)D(2)) and high trophic levels(OSMOSE). ROMS-N(2)P(2)Z(2)D(2) is a biogeochemical model representing phytoplankton and zooplankton seasonal dynamics forced by hydrodynamics in the Benguela upwelling ecosystem. OSMOSE is an individual-based model representing the dynamics of several species of fish, linked through opportunistic and size-based trophic interactions. The models are coupled through a two-way size-based predation process. Plankton provides prey for fish, and the effects of predation by fish on the plankton are described by a plankton mortality term that is variable in space and time. Using the end-to-end model, we compare the effects of two-way coupling versus one-way forcing of the fish model with the plankton biomass field. The fish-induced mortality on plankton is temporally variable, in part explained by seasonal changes in fish biomass. Inclusion of two-way feedback affects the seasonal dynamics of plankton groups and usually reduces the amplitude of variation in abundance (top-down effect). Forcing and coupling lead to different predicted food web structures owing to changes in the dominant food chain which is supported by plankton (bottom-up effect). Our comparisons of one-way forcing and two-way coupling show how feedbacks may affect abundance, food web structure and food web function and emphasise the need to critically examine the consequences of different model architectures when seeking to predict the effects of fishing and climate change.  
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  ISSN 0304-3800 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 29  
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