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Auteur Potier, M.; Ménard, F.; Benivary, H.D.; Sabatié, R. url  doi
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  Titre Lenght and weight estimates from diagnostic hard part structures of fish, crustacea and cephalopods forage species in the western Indian Ocean Type Article scientifique
  Année 2011 Publication Revue Abrégée Environmental Biology of Fishes  
  Volume Numéro Pages  
  Mots-Clés Analyse Quantitative; Contenu Stomacal; Espece Pelagique; Poisson Marin; predation; Relation Taille Poids; Structure Trophique  
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  ISSN 1573-5133 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 159  
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Auteur Maury, O.; Poggiale, J.-C. url  openurl
  Titre From individuals to populations to communities: A dynamic energy budget model of marine ecosystem size-spectrum including life history diversity Type Article scientifique
  Année 2013 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Theoretical Biology  
  Volume 324 Numéro Pages 52-71  
  Mots-Clés biodiversity; Dynamic Energy Budget theory; predation; Schooling; Size spectrum  
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  ISSN 0022-5193 ISBN Médium  
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  Notes <p>\textbackslashtextlessp\textbackslashtextgreaterIndividual metabolism, predator–prey relationships, and the role of biodiversity are major factors underlying the dynamics of food webs and their response to environmental variability. Despite their crucial, complementary and interacting influences, they are usually not considered simultaneously in current marine ecosystem models. In an attempt to fill this gap and determine if these factors and their interaction are sufficient to allow realistic community structure and dynamics to emerge, we formulate a mathematical model of the size-structured dynamics of marine communities which integrates mechanistically individual, population and community levels. The model represents the transfer of energy generated in both time and size by an infinite number of interacting fish species spanning from very small to very large species. It is based on standard individual level assumptions of the Dynamic Energy Budget theory (DEB) as well as important ecological processes such as opportunistic size-based predation and competition for food. Resting on the inter-specific body-size scaling relationships of the DEB theory, the diversity of life-history traits (i.e. biodiversity) is explicitly integrated. The stationary solutions of the model as well as the transient solutions arising when environmental signals (e.g. variability of primary production and temperature) propagate through the ecosystem are studied using numerical simulations. It is shown that in the absence of density-dependent feedback processes, the model exhibits unstable oscillations. Density-dependent schooling probability and schooling-dependent predatory and disease mortalities are proposed to be important stabilizing factors allowing stationary solutions to be reached. At the community level, the shape and slope of the obtained quasi-linear stationary spectrum matches well with empirical studies. When oscillations of primary production are simulated, the model predicts that the variability propagates along the spectrum in a given frequency-dependent size range before decreasing for larger sizes. At the species level, the simulations show that small and large species dominate the community successively (small species being more abundant at small sizes and large species being more abundant at large sizes) and that the total biomass of a species decreases with its maximal size which again corroborates empirical studies. Our results indicate that the simultaneous consideration of individual growth and reproduction, size-structured trophic interactions, the diversity of life-history traits and a density-dependent stabilizing process allow realistic community structure and dynamics to emerge without any arbitrary prescription. As a logical consequence of our model construction and a basis for future studies, we define the function Φ as the relative contribution of each species to the total biomass of the ecosystem, for any given size. We argue that this function is a measure of the functional role of biodiversity characterizing the impact of the structure of the community (its species composition) on its function (the relative proportions of losses, dissipation and biological work).\textbackslashtextless/p\textbackslashtextgreater</p> Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 245  
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Auteur Travers, M.; Shin, Y.-J.; Jennings, S.; Machu, E.; Huggett, J.A.; Field, J.G.; Cury, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Two-way coupling versus one-way forcing of plankton and fish models to predict ecosystem changes in the Benguela Type Article scientifique
  Année 2009 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecological Modelling  
  Volume 220 Numéro 21 Pages 3089-3099  
  Mots-Clés Benguela upwelling; Ecem 07; End-to-end approach; food web; marine; Marine ecosystem model coupling; Predation  
  Résumé (up) 'End-to-end' models have been adopted in an attempt to capture more of the processes that influence the ecology of marine ecosystems and to make system wide predictions of the effects of fishing and climate change. Here, we develop an end-to-end model by coupling existing models that describe the dynamics of low (ROMS-N(2)P(2)Z(2)D(2)) and high trophic levels(OSMOSE). ROMS-N(2)P(2)Z(2)D(2) is a biogeochemical model representing phytoplankton and zooplankton seasonal dynamics forced by hydrodynamics in the Benguela upwelling ecosystem. OSMOSE is an individual-based model representing the dynamics of several species of fish, linked through opportunistic and size-based trophic interactions. The models are coupled through a two-way size-based predation process. Plankton provides prey for fish, and the effects of predation by fish on the plankton are described by a plankton mortality term that is variable in space and time. Using the end-to-end model, we compare the effects of two-way coupling versus one-way forcing of the fish model with the plankton biomass field. The fish-induced mortality on plankton is temporally variable, in part explained by seasonal changes in fish biomass. Inclusion of two-way feedback affects the seasonal dynamics of plankton groups and usually reduces the amplitude of variation in abundance (top-down effect). Forcing and coupling lead to different predicted food web structures owing to changes in the dominant food chain which is supported by plankton (bottom-up effect). Our comparisons of one-way forcing and two-way coupling show how feedbacks may affect abundance, food web structure and food web function and emphasise the need to critically examine the consequences of different model architectures when seeking to predict the effects of fishing and climate change.  
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  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 29  
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Auteur van Gils, J.A.; van der Geest, M.; De Meulenaer, B.; Gillis, H.; Piersma, T.; Folmer, E.O. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Moving on with foraging theory: incorporating movement decisions into the functional response of a gregarious shorebird Type Article scientifique
  Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Animal Ecology  
  Volume 84 Numéro Pages 554-564  
  Mots-Clés competition continuous-time Markov chain cryptic interference diet distribution habitat choice intake rate movement ecology predation toxic prey SPATIAL-DISTRIBUTION RED KNOTS MODELING INTERFERENCE CRYPTIC INTERFERENCE STOCHASTIC VERSION BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY MULTISTATE MODELS BANC-DARGUIN GROUP-SIZE PREY Ecology Zoology  
  Résumé (up) 1. Models relating intake rate to food abundance and competitor density (generalized functional response models) can predict forager distributions and movements between patches, but we lack understanding of how distributions and small-scale movements by the foragers themselves affect intake rates. Using a state-of-the-art approach based on continuous-time Markov chain dynamics, we add realism to classic functional response models by acknowledging that the chances to encounter food and competitors are influenced by movement decisions, and, vice versa, that movement decisions are influenced by these encounters. We used a multi-state modelling framework to construct a stochastic functional response model in which foragers alternate between three behavioural states: searching, handling and moving. Using behavioural observations on a molluscivore migrant shorebird (red knot, Calidris canutus canutus), at its main wintering area (Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania), we estimated transition rates between foraging states as a function of conspecific densities and densities of the two main bivalve prey. Intake rate decreased with conspecific density. This interference effect was not due to decreased searching efficiency, but resulted from time lost to avoidance movements. Red knots showed a strong functional response to one prey (Dosinia isocardia), but a weak response to the other prey (Loripes lucinalis). This corroborates predictions from a recently developed optimal diet model that accounts for the mildly toxic effects due to consuming Loripes. Using model averaging across the most plausible multi-state models, the fully parameterized functional response model was then used to predict intake rate for an independent data set on habitat choice by red knot. Comparison of the sites selected by red knots with random sampling sites showed that the birds fed at sites with higher than average Loripes and Dosinia densities, that is sites for which we predicted higher than average intake rates. We discuss the limitations of Holling's classic functional response model which ignores movement and the limitations of contemporary movement ecological theory that ignores consumer-resource interactions. With the rapid advancement of technologies to track movements of individual foragers at fine spatial scales, the time is ripe to integrate descriptive tracking studies with stochastic movement-based functional response models.  
  Adresse [van Gils, Jan A.; van der Geest, Matthijs; De Meulenaer, Brecht; Gillis, Hanneke; Piersma, Theunis; Folmer, Eelke O.] NIOZ Royal Netherlands Inst Sea Res, Dept Marine Ecol, NL-1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, Netherlands. [van der Geest, Matthijs; Piersma, Theunis] Univ Groningen, Anim Ecol Grp, Ctr Ecol & Evolutionary Studies CEES, Chair Global Flyway Ecol, NL-9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands. van Gils, JA (reprint author), NIOZ Royal Netherlands Inst Sea Res, Dept Marine Ecol, POB 59, NL-1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, Netherlands. Jan.van.Gils@nioz.nl  
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  ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Médium  
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  Notes ISI Document Delivery No.: CB9RB Times Cited: 0 Cited Reference Count: 61 van Gils, Jan A. van der Geest, Matthijs De Meulenaer, Brecht Gillis, Hanneke Piersma, Theunis Folmer, Eelke O. NWO WOTRO [W.01.65.221.00]; NWO [R 84-639]; NWO VIDI [864.09.002] We thank Parc National du Banc d'Arguin (PNBA) for their hospitality, the hosting of our presence and the permission to work in and from the Iwik scientific station. Lemhaba ould Yarba made the logistic arrangements. Joop van Eerbeek, Erik J. Jansen, Han Olff and El-Hacen Mohamed El-Hacen helped collecting and sorting benthos samples. Valuable comments on the manuscript were given by Allert Bijleveld, Jaap van der Meer, Ola Olsson, Thomas Oudman, Isabel M. Smallegange, an anonymous referee and by the 'literature club' of the Centre for Integrative Ecology during JAvG's sabbatical at Deakin University. Dick Visser polished the figures. This work is supported by an NWO WOTRO Integrated Programme grant (W.01.65.221.00) to TP, an NWO travel grant (R 84-639) to EOF, and an NWO VIDI grant (864.09.002) to JAvG. 0 WILEY-BLACKWELL HOBOKEN J ANIM ECOL Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ 1412 collection 1383  
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Auteur Chassot, E.; Duplisea, D.; Hammill, M.; Caskenette, A.; Bousquet, N.; Lambert, Y.; Stenson, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Role of predation by harp seals Pagophilus groenlandicus in the collapse and non-recovery of northern Gulf of St. Lawrence cod Gadus morhua Type Article scientifique
  Année 2009 Publication Revue Abrégée Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser.  
  Volume 379 Numéro Pages 279-297  
  Mots-Clés cod; functional response; harp seal; model; predation; recovery  
  Résumé (up) A statistical catch-at-age model was developed to assess the effects of predation by the northwest Atlantic harp seal population on northern Gulf of St. Lawrence cod by estimating the relative importance of different sources of mortality that affected the stock during a period of collapse and non-recovery. Cod recruitment at age 1 is modeled via a non-linear stock-recruitment relationship based on total egg production and accounts for changes in female length-at-maturity and cod condition. Natural mortality other than seal predation also depends on cod condition used as an integrative index of changes in environmental conditions. The linkage between seals and cod is modeled through a multi-age functional response that was derived from the reconstruction of the seal diet using morphometric relationships and stomach contents of more than 200 seals collected between 1998 and 2001. The model was fitted following a maximum likelihood estimation approach to a scientific survey abundance index (1984 to 2006). Model results show that the collapse of the northern Gulf of St. Lawrence cod stock was mainly due to the combination of high fishing mortality rates and poor environmental conditions in the early to mid-1990s contributing to the current state of recruitment overfishing. The increase in harp seal abundance during 1984 to 2006 was reflected by an increase in predation mortality for the young cod age-groups targeted by seals. Although current levels of predation mortality affect cod spawning biomass, the lack of recovery of the NGSL cod stock seems mainly due to the very poor recruitment.  
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  ISSN 0171-8630 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 15  
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