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Auteur (up) Galasso, H.L.; Richard, M.; Lefebvre, S.; Aliaume, C.; Callier, M.D. doi  openurl
  Titre Body size and temperature effects on standard metabolic rate for determining metabolic scope for activity of the polychaete Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor Type Article scientifique
  Année 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée PeerJ  
  Volume 6 Numéro Pages e5675  
  Mots-Clés adaptation; Aerobic scope; Allometric coefficient; annelida; Annelida; Arrhenius temperature; Deposit-feeder; growth; Growth; muller; nereididae; Oxygen consumption; oxygen-uptake; populations; respiration; salinity; ventilation  
  Résumé Considering the ecological importance and potential value of Hediste diversicolor, a better understanding of its metabolic rate and potential growth rates is required. The aims of this study are: (i) to describe key biometric relationships; (ii) to test the effects of temperature and body size on standard metabolic rate (as measure by oxygen consumption) to determine critical parameters, namely Arrhenius temperature (T-A), allometric coefficient (b) and reaction rate; and (iii) to determine the metabolic scope for activity (MSA) of H. diversicolor for further comparison with published specific growth rates. Individuals were collected in a Mediterranean lagoon (France). After 10 days of acclimatization, 7 days at a fixed temperature and 24 h of fasting, resting oxygen consumption rates (VO2) were individually measured in the dark at four different temperatures (11, 17, 22 and 27 degrees C) in worms weighing from 4 to 94 mgDW (n = 27 per temperature). Results showed that DW and L3 were the most accurate measurements of weight and length, respectively, among all the metrics tested. Conversion of WW (mg), DW (mg) and L3 (mm) were quantified with the following equations: DW = 0.15 x WW, L3 = 0.025 x TL(mm) + 1.44 and DW = 0.8 x L3(3.68). Using an equation based on temperature and allometric effects, the allometric coefficient (b) was estimated at 0.8 for DW and at 2.83 for L3. The reaction rate (VO2) equaled to 12.33 mu mol gDW(-1) h(-1) and 0.05 mu mol mm L3(-1) h(-)(1) at the reference temperature (20 degrees C, 293.15 K). Arrhenius temperature (T-A) was 5,707 and 5,664 K (for DW and L3, respectively). Metabolic scope for activity ranged from 120.1 to 627.6 J gDW(-1) d(-1). Predicted maximum growth rate increased with temperature, with expected values of 7-10% in the range of 15-20 degrees C. MSA was then used to evaluate specific growth rates (SGR) in several experiments. This paper may be used as a reference and could have interesting applications in the fields of aquaculture, ecology and biogeochemical processes.  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 2167-8359 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2443  
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Auteur (up) Lefevre, S.; Bayley, M.; McKenzie, D.J. url  doi
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  Titre Measuring oxygen uptake in fishes with bimodal respiration Type Article scientifique
  Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée J Fish Biol  
  Volume 88 Numéro 1 Pages 206-231  
  Mots-Clés intermittent-closed; oxygen consumption; respiratory partitioning; respirometry  
  Résumé Respirometry is a robust method for measurement of oxygen uptake as a proxy for metabolic rate in fishes, and how species with bimodal respiration might meet their demands from water v. air has interested researchers for over a century. The challenges of measuring oxygen uptake from both water and air, preferably simultaneously, have been addressed in a variety of ways, which are briefly reviewed. These methods are not well-suited for the long-term measurements necessary to be certain of obtaining undisturbed patterns of respiratory partitioning, for example, to estimate traits such as standard metabolic rate. Such measurements require automated intermittent-closed respirometry that, for bimodal fishes, has only recently been developed. This paper describes two approaches in enough detail to be replicated by the interested researcher. These methods are for static respirometry. Measuring oxygen uptake by bimodal fishes during exercise poses specific challenges, which are described to aid the reader in designing experiments. The respiratory physiology and behaviour of air-breathing fishes is very complex and can easily be influenced by experimental conditions, and some general considerations are listed to facilitate the design of experiments. Air breathing is believed to have evolved in response to aquatic hypoxia and, probably, associated hypercapnia. The review ends by considering what realistic hypercapnia is, how hypercapnic tropical waters can become and how this might influence bimodal animals' gas exchange.  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1095-8649 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1536  
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Auteur (up) Lefevre, S.; Mckenzie, D.J.; Nilsson, G.E. doi  openurl
  Titre Models projecting the fate of fish populations under climate change need to be based on valid physiological mechanisms Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Glob. Change Biol.  
  Volume 23 Numéro 9 Pages 3449-3459  
  Mots-Clés aerobic scope; coryphaena-hippurus; energy-demand teleosts; gadus-morhua l; gill surface area; growth; makaira-nigricans; marlin tetrapturus-albidus; metabolism; metabolism-size relationship; oxygen consumption; oxygen-consumption; ram ventilation; Respiration; scaling; swimming performance; tuna katsuwonus-pelamis  
  Résumé Some recent modelling papers projecting smaller fish sizes and catches in a warmer future are based on erroneous assumptions regarding (i) the scaling of gills with body mass and (ii) the energetic cost of 'maintenance'. Assumption (i) posits that insurmountable geometric constraints prevent respiratory surface areas from growing as fast as body volume. It is argued that these constraints explain allometric scaling of energy metabolism, whereby larger fishes have relatively lower mass-specific metabolic rates. Assumption (ii) concludes that when fishes reach a certain size, basal oxygen demands will not be met, because of assumption (i). We here demonstrate unequivocally, by applying accepted physiological principles with reference to the existing literature, that these assumptions are not valid. Gills are folded surfaces, where the scaling of surface area to volume is not constrained by spherical geometry. The gill surface area can, in fact, increase linearly in proportion to gill volume and body mass. We cite the large body of evidence demonstrating that respiratory surface areas in fishes reflect metabolic needs, not vice versa, which explains the large interspecific variation in scaling of gill surface areas. Finally, we point out that future studies basing their predictions on models should incorporate factors for scaling of metabolic rate and for temperature effects on metabolism, which agree with measured values, and should account for interspecific variation in scaling and temperature effects. It is possible that some fishes will become smaller in the future, but to make reliable predictions the underlying mechanisms need to be identified and sought elsewhere than in geometric constraints on gill surface area. Furthermore, to ensure that useful information is conveyed to the public and policymakers about the possible effects of climate change, it is necessary to improve communication and congruity between fish physiologists and fisheries scientists.  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1354-1013 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2169  
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Auteur (up) Richard, M.; Bourreau, J.; Montagnani, C.; Ouisse, V.; Le Gall, P.; Fortune, M.; Munaron, D.; Messiaen, G.; Callier, M.D.; Roque d'Orbcastel, E. doi  openurl
  Titre Influence of OSHV-1 oyster mortality episode on dissolved inorganic fluxes: An ex situ experiment at the individual scale Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquaculture  
  Volume 475 Numéro Pages 40-51  
  Mots-Clés carrying-capacity; Crassostrea gigas; crassostrea-gigas spat; eastern oyster; juvenile; la-madeleine quebec; mediterranean thau lagoon; Mineralisation; mortality; mussel mytilus-edulis; mu-var; Nutrient fluxes; Ostreid herpesvirus 1; ostreid herpesvirus-1 infection; oxygen consumption; oxygen-consumption rates; pacific oysters; Spat  
  Résumé Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1 mu var) infection has caused significant mortalities in juvenile oysters (Crassostrea gigas). In contrast to the practices of other animal production industries, sick and dead oysters are not separated from live ones and are left to decay in the surrounding environment, with unknown consequences on fluxes of dissolved materials. A laboratory approach was used in this study to test the influence of oyster mortality episode on dissolved inorganic fluxes at the oyster interface, dissociating (i) the effect of viral infection on metabolism of juvenile oysters and (ii) the effect of flesh decomposition on oxygen consumption and nutrient releases at the individual scale. Nine batches of juvenile oysters (Individual Total wet weight 1 g) were infected via injection of OsHV-1 enriched inoculums at different viral loads (108 and 109 OsHV-1 DNA copies per oyster) to explore infection thresholds. Oysters injected with filtered seawater were used as controls (C). Oysters were maintained under standard conditions to avoid stress linked to hypoxia, starvation, or ammonia excess. Before, after the injection and during the mortality episode, i.e. at days 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14, nine oysters per treatment were incubated in individual metabolic chambers to quantify oxygen, ammonium and phosphate fluxes at the seawater-oyster interface. Nine empty chambers served as a reference. Injections of the two viral loads of OsHV-1 induced similar mortality rates (38%), beginning at day 3 and lasting until day 14. The observed mortality kinetics were slower than those reported in previous experimental pathology studies, but comparable to those observed in the field (Thau lagoon, France). This study highlights that oxygen and nutrient fluxes significantly varied during mortality episode. Indeed (i) OsHV-1 infection firstly modifies oyster metabolism, with significant decreases in oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion, and (ii) dead oysters lead to a strong increase of ammonium (6 fold) and phosphate (41 fold) fluxes and a decrease in the N/P ratio due to mineralisation of their flesh. The latter may modify the structure of the planktonic community in the field during mortality episode. This study is a first step of the MORTAFLUX program. The second step was to in situ confirm this abnormal nutrient loading during a mortality episode and show its impact on bacterio-, phyto-and protozoo-plankton. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0044-8486 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2149  
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Auteur (up) Rind, K.; Rodriguez-Barucg, Q.; Nicolas, D.; Cucchi, P.; Lignot, J.-H. doi  openurl
  Titre Morphological and physiological traits of Mediterranean sticklebacks living in the Camargue wetland (Rhone river delta) Type Article scientifique
  Année 2020 Publication Revue Abrégée J. Fish Biol.  
  Volume Numéro Pages  
  Mots-Clés 3-spined stickleback; ecological causes; Gasterosteus aculeatus; gasterosteus-aculeatus l; gill rakers; ion regulation; k+-atpase activity; morphometry; na+/k+-atpase; NKA activity; osmoregulation; oxygen consumption; oxygen-consumption; pelvic reduction; plate morph evolution; salinity; stickleback; threespine stickleback  
  Résumé Three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) living at the southern limit of the species distribution range could possess specific morphological and physiological traits that enable these fish to live at the threshold of their physiological capacities. Morphological analysis was carried out on samples of sticklebacks living in different saline habitats of the Camargue area (Rhone delta, northern Mediterranean coast) obtained from 1993 to 2017. Salinity acclimation capacities were also investigated using individuals from freshwater-low salinity drainage canals and from mesohaline-euryhaline lagoons. Fish were maintained in laboratory conditions at salinity values close to those of their respective habitats: low salinity (LS, 5 parts per thousand) or seawater (SW, 30 parts per thousand). Fish obtained from a mesohaline brackish water lagoon (BW, 15 parts per thousand) were acclimated to SW or LS. Oxygen consumption rates and branchial Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) activity (indicator of fish osmoregulatory capacity) were measured in these LS or SW control fish and in individuals subjected to abrupt SW or LS transfers. At all the studied locations, only the low-plated “leiurus” morphotype showed no spatial or temporal variations in their body morphology. Gill rakers were only longer and denser in fish sampled from the LS-freshwater (FW) drainage canals. All fish presented similar physiological capacities. Oxygen consumption rates were not influenced by salinity challenge except in SW fish transferred to LS immediately and 1 h after transfer. However, and as expected, gill NKA activity was salinity dependent. Sticklebacks of the Camargue area sampled from habitats with contrasted saline conditions are homogenously euryhaline, have low oxygen consumption rates and do not appear to experience significantly greater metabolic costs when challenged with salinity. However, an observed difference in gill raker length and density is most probably related to the nutritional condition of their habitat, indicating that individuals can rapidly acclimatize to different diets.  
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  ISSN 0022-1112 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2770  
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