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Auteur Lotze, H.K.; Tittensor, D.P.; Bryndum-Buchholz, A.; Eddy, T.D.; Cheung, W.W.L.; Galbraith, E.D.; Barange, M.; Barrier, N.; Bianchi, D.; Blanchard, J.L.; Bopp, L.; Büchner, M.; Bulman, C.M.; Carozza, D.A.; Christensen, V.; Coll, M.; Dunne, J.P.; Fulton, E.A.; Jennings, S.; Jones, M.C.; Mackinson, S.; Maury, O.; Niiranen, S.; Oliveros-Ramos, R.; Roy, T.; Fernandes, J.A.; Schewe, J.; Shin, Y.-J.; Silva, T.A.M.; Steenbeek, J.; Stock, C.A.; Verley, P.; Volkholz, J.; Walker, N.D.; Worm, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Global ensemble projections reveal trophic amplification of ocean biomass declines with climate change Type Article scientifique
  Année 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée Pnas  
  Volume (down) 116 Numéro 26 Pages 12907-12912  
  Mots-Clés climate change impacts; global ecosystem modeling; marine food webs; model intercomparison; uncertainty  
  Résumé While the physical dimensions of climate change are now routinely assessed through multimodel intercomparisons, projected impacts on the global ocean ecosystem generally rely on individual models with a specific set of assumptions. To address these single-model limitations, we present standardized ensemble projections from six global marine ecosystem models forced with two Earth system models and four emission scenarios with and without fishing. We derive average biomass trends and associated uncertainties across the marine food web. Without fishing, mean global animal biomass decreased by 5% (±4% SD) under low emissions and 17% (±11% SD) under high emissions by 2100, with an average 5% decline for every 1 °C of warming. Projected biomass declines were primarily driven by increasing temperature and decreasing primary production, and were more pronounced at higher trophic levels, a process known as trophic amplification. Fishing did not substantially alter the effects of climate change. Considerable regional variation featured strong biomass increases at high latitudes and decreases at middle to low latitudes, with good model agreement on the direction of change but variable magnitude. Uncertainties due to variations in marine ecosystem and Earth system models were similar. Ensemble projections performed well compared with empirical data, emphasizing the benefits of multimodel inference to project future outcomes. Our results indicate that global ocean animal biomass consistently declines with climate change, and that these impacts are amplified at higher trophic levels. Next steps for model development include dynamic scenarios of fishing, cumulative human impacts, and the effects of management measures on future ocean biomass trends.  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424, 1091-6490 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes WOS:000472719100059 Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2586  
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Auteur Sadio, O.; Simier, M.; Ecoutin, J.-M.; Raffray, J.; Laë, R.; Tito de Morais, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Effect of a marine protected area on tropical estuarine fish assemblages: Comparison between protected and unprotected sites in Senegal Type Article scientifique
  Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Ocean & Coastal Management  
  Volume (down) 116 Numéro Pages 257-269  
  Mots-Clés Bio-ecological indicators; Fish assemblages; marine protected area; MPA effect; Tropical estuary; West Africa  
  Résumé A comparative study of fish assemblages of a marine protected area and an exploited area was carried out in the Sine Saloum estuary (Senegal, West Africa). Data were collected at these two sites between 2008 and 2011. The two areas are morphologically similar, and comparison of the physicochemical parameters (salinity, transparency, temperature and percentage of saturation of dissolved oxygen) showed that the water masses are similar. The bio-ecological indicators and ecological, trophic and size structures were also compared. Given the environmental similarity of the two sites, their differences in bio-ecological characteristics and fish assemblage organization can be explained by the protection status of the MPA. The species richness and fish abundance per sampling unit were higher in the exploited site, but the mean trophic level and the observed maximum size of individuals were higher in the MPA. Although slightly higher for the MPA, the differences observed for biomass and average size between the two sites were not significant. The beta diversity in the MPA was higher than in the exploited site. The fish assemblage was dominated in terms of abundance by two pelagic herbivores Ethmalosa fimbriata (80%) and Sardinella maderensis (12.3%) and in terms of biomass by E. fimbriata (37.4%) and a benthic predator, Arius latiscutatus (23.7%). The assemblage of the MPA had a marine affinity characterized by the presence of piscivorous or generalist predators; large individuals were not uncommon. In the exploited site, the fish assemblage was relatively stable, dominated in abundance by E. fimbriata (33.4%) and S. maderensis (32.8%). In terms of biomass, a species of mullet, Liza dumerili, ranked first (26.2%), followed by E. fimbriata (22.4%) and S. maderensis (14.9%). The assemblage in the exploited site had a more estuarine affinity, dominated by detritivorous or phytophagous herbivores. Individuals observed there were mostly of small or medium size. This study confirms that the establishment of MPA is an effective tool for restoring marine biodiversity and trophic structure of fish assemblages.  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0964-5691 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1426  
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Auteur Cinner, J.E.; Maire, Eva; Huchery, C.; MacNeil, M.A.; Graham, N.A.J.; Mora, C.; McClanahan, T.R.; Barnes, M.L.; Kittinger, J.N.; Hicks, C.C.; D’Agata, S.; Hoey, A.S.; Gurney, G.G.; Feary, D.A.; Williams, I.D.; Kulbicki, M.; Vigliola, L.; Wantiez, L.; Edgar, G.J.; Stuart-Smith, R.D.; Sandin, S.A.; Green, A.; Hardt, M.J.; Beger, M.; Friedlander, A.M.; Wilson, S.K.; Brokovich, E.; Brooks, A.J.; Cruz-Motta, J.J.; Booth, D.J.; Chabanet, P.; Gough, C.; Tupper, M.; Ferse, S.C.A.; Sumaila, U.R.; Pardede, S.; Mouillot, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Gravity of human impacts mediates coral reef conservation gains Type Article scientifique
  Année 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée Pnas  
  Volume (down) 115 Numéro 27 Pages E6116-E6125  
  Mots-Clés coral reefs; fisheries; marine reserves; social-ecological; socioeconomic  
  Résumé Coral reefs provide ecosystem goods and services for millions of people in the tropics, but reef conditions are declining worldwide. Effective solutions to the crisis facing coral reefs depend in part on understanding the context under which different types of conservation benefits can be maximized. Our global analysis of nearly 1,800 tropical reefs reveals how the intensity of human impacts in the surrounding seascape, measured as a function of human population size and accessibility to reefs (“gravity”), diminishes the effectiveness of marine reserves at sustaining reef fish biomass and the presence of top predators, even where compliance with reserve rules is high. Critically, fish biomass in high-compliance marine reserves located where human impacts were intensive tended to be less than a quarter that of reserves where human impacts were low. Similarly, the probability of encountering top predators on reefs with high human impacts was close to zero, even in high-compliance marine reserves. However, we find that the relative difference between openly fished sites and reserves (what we refer to as conservation gains) are highest for fish biomass (excluding predators) where human impacts are moderate and for top predators where human impacts are low. Our results illustrate critical ecological trade-offs in meeting key conservation objectives: reserves placed where there are moderate-to-high human impacts can provide substantial conservation gains for fish biomass, yet they are unlikely to support key ecosystem functions like higher-order predation, which is more prevalent in reserve locations with low human impacts.  
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  ISSN 0027-8424, 1091-6490 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2365  
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Auteur Roberts, C.M.; O’Leary, B.C.; McCauley, D.J.; Cury, P.M.; Duarte, C.M.; Lubchenco, J.; Pauly, D.; Sáenz-Arroyo, A.; Sumaila, U.R.; Wilson, R.W.; Worm, B.; Castilla, J.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Marine reserves can mitigate and promote adaptation to climate change Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Pnas  
  Volume (down) 114 Numéro 24 Pages 6167-6175  
  Mots-Clés ecological insurance; global change; Marine Protected Areas; Mpa; nature-based solution  
  Résumé Strong decreases in greenhouse gas emissions are required to meet the reduction trajectory resolved within the 2015 Paris Agreement. However, even these decreases will not avert serious stress and damage to life on Earth, and additional steps are needed to boost the resilience of ecosystems, safeguard their wildlife, and protect their capacity to supply vital goods and services. We discuss how well-managed marine reserves may help marine ecosystems and people adapt to five prominent impacts of climate change: acidification, sea-level rise, intensification of storms, shifts in species distribution, and decreased productivity and oxygen availability, as well as their cumulative effects. We explore the role of managed ecosystems in mitigating climate change by promoting carbon sequestration and storage and by buffering against uncertainty in management, environmental fluctuations, directional change, and extreme events. We highlight both strengths and limitations and conclude that marine reserves are a viable low-tech, cost-effective adaptation strategy that would yield multiple cobenefits from local to global scales, improving the outlook for the environment and people into the future.  
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  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0027-8424, 1091-6490 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2144  
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Auteur Danovaro, R.; Fanelli, E.; Canals, M.; Ciuffardi, T.; Fabri, M.-C.; Taviani, M.; Argyrou, M.; Azzurro, E.; Bianchelli, S.; Cantafaro, A.; Carugati, L.; Corinaldesi, C.; de Haan, W.P.; Dell'Anno, A.; Evans, J.; Foglini, F.; Galil, B.; Gianni, M.; Goren, M.; Greco, S.; Grimalt, J.; Guell-Bujons, Q.; Jadaud, A.; Knittweis, L.; Lopez, J.L.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Schembri, P.J.; Snelgrove, P.; Vaz, S. doi  openurl
  Titre Towards a marine strategy for the deep Mediterranean Sea: Analysis of current ecological status Type Article scientifique
  Année 2020 Publication Revue Abrégée Mar. Pol.  
  Volume (down) 112 Numéro Pages 103781  
  Mots-Clés atmospheric deposition; Deep-sea ecosystems; downward particle fluxes; food-web structure; Marine strategy framework directive; Mediterranean basin; mercury bioaccumulation; particulate matter; polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons; seismic surveys; stable-isotopes; submarine canyons; trophic ecology  
  Résumé The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), introduced in June 2008, was adopted to achieve a Good Environmental Status (GES) in the Ell's marine waters and to protect resources of socio-economic interest. The MSFD exerts to the marine area over which a Member State exercises jurisdictional rights in accordance with the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), including the deep-sea waters, seafloor and subseafloor of the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ). However, currently the MSFD focuses on coastal habitats and the shallow-water seafloor to the detriment of the deeper habitats. Despite the huge dimension of the deep sea (below 200 m of depth) covering more than 65% of the Earth's surface and including >95% of the global biosphere, the relevance of the dark portion of the seas and oceans is still almost completely neglected. Given the important bi-directional links between shallow and deep ecosystems, there is a clear need for extending the implementation of the MSFD into the deep sea, to define a sound ecosystem-based approach for the management and protection of deep-sea ecosystems and attain GES. We assembled data on drivers, anthropogenic pressures and impacts concerning the MSFD descriptors pertaining to the Mediterranean deep sea. We list deep-sea monitoring activities and the main sources providing benchmark conditions, and discuss knowledge and geographic coverage gaps. MSFD descriptors apply to the deep sea as to coastal waters, and ought to be monitored contemporaneously. We provide recommendations for guidelines for future deep-sea monitoring in the Mediterranean Sea.  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0308-597x ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes WOS:000515208000012 Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2749  
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