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Auteur Olivier, D.; Loiseau, N.; Petatan-Ramirez, D.; Trujillo Milian, O.; Suarez-Castillo, A.N.; Torre, J.; Munguia-Vega, A.; Reyes-Bonilla, H. doi  openurl
  Titre Functional-biogeography of the reef fishes of the islands of the Gulf of California: Integrating functional divergence into marine conservation Type Article scientifique
  Année 2018 Publication (up) Revue Abrégée Glob. Ecol. Conserv.  
  Volume 16 Numéro Pages e00506  
  Mots-Clés biodiversity; communities; diversity; species richness; Biodiversity; vulnerability; framework; ecosystem function; redundancy; Functional traits; Biologically important area; Marine protected area; regionalization; rocky reefs; Sea of Cortez; Tropical Eastern Pacific  
  Résumé The Gulf of California (GC) is a semi-closed sea in the Tropical Eastern Pacific and is recognised as a highly diverse marine ecosystem. Despite this status, this region is still poorly studied in comparison to other marine hotspots. To start filling this gap, we attempt to provide a global overview of reef-fish diversity around the numerous islands of the region. We evaluated species richness, the abundance and biomass, and the functional diversity of the fish assemblages for the major islands of the GC. We first highlight that the southwestern part of the central GC is the hotspot of reef-fishes diversity within the GC, in terms of species richness, functional diversity, and fish abundance. We then found out an important functional divergence between fish assemblages of northern and southern regions. The fish biomass of each region is dominated by different species, characterised by different ecological traits (the opposite of functional convergence). This functional divergence may be explained by an important oceanographic heterogeneity along the latitudinal axis of the GC. The northern part shows larger climate fluctuations while the southern part is more tropical and climatically stable. Such functional divergence is a biodiversity facet to take into account when determining the sites to focus conservation action. In the GC, this criterion allows the importance of some sites to be highlighted to preserve the legacy of the reef-fishes, despite their lower diversity levels. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.  
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  ISSN 2351-9894 ISBN Médium  
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Auteur METCALFE, K.; VAZ, S.; ENGELHARD, G.H.; VILLANUEVA, C.-M.; SMITH, R.J.; MACKINSON, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Evaluating conservation and fisheries management strategies by linking spatial prioritization software and ecosystem and fisheries modelling tools Type Article scientifique
  Année 2015 Publication (up) Revue Abrégée Journal Of Applied Ecology  
  Volume 52 Numéro 3 Pages 665-674  
  Mots-Clés Ecopath with Ecosim; Ecospace; marine spatial zoning; marine trophic index; Marxan; Marxan with Zones; systematic conservation planning  
  Résumé Well-designed marine protected area (MPA) networks can deliver a range of ecological, economic and social benefits, and so a great deal of research has focused on developing spatial conservation prioritization tools to help identify important areas. However, whilst these software tools are designed to identify MPA networks that both represent biodiversity and minimize impacts on stakeholders, they do not consider complex ecological processes. Thus, it is difficult to determine the impacts that proposed MPAs could have on marine ecosystem health, fisheries and fisheries sustainability. Using the eastern English Channel as a case study, this paper explores an approach to address these issues by identifying a series of MPA networks using the Marxan and Marxan with Zones conservation planning software and linking them with a spatially explicit ecosystem model developed in Ecopath with Ecosim. We then use these to investigate potential trade-offs associated with adopting different MPA management strategies. Limited-take MPAs, which restrict the use of some fishing gears, could have positive benefits for conservation and fisheries in the eastern English Channel, even though they generally receive far less attention in research on MPA network design. Our findings, however, also clearly indicate that no-take MPAs should form an integral component of proposed MPA networks in the eastern English Channel, as they not only result in substantial increases in ecosystem biomass, fisheries catches and the biomass of commercially valuable target species, but are fundamental to maintaining the sustainability of the fisheries. Synthesis and applications. Using the existing software tools Marxan with Zones and Ecopath with Ecosim in combination provides a powerful policy-screening approach. This could help inform marine spatial planning by identifying potential conflicts and by designing new regulations that better balance conservation objectives and stakeholder interests. In addition, it highlights that appropriate combinations of no-take and limited-take marine protected areas might be the most effective when making trade-offs between long-term ecological benefits and short-term political acceptability.  
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Auteur Ben Othman, H.; Pringault, O.; Louati, H.; Hlaili, A.S.; Leboulanger, C. doi  openurl
  Titre Impact of contaminated sediment elutriate on coastal phytoplankton community (Thau lagoon, Mediterranean Sea, France) Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication (up) Revue Abrégée J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol.  
  Volume 486 Numéro Pages 1-12  
  Mots-Clés Contaminants; domoic acid production; estuarine sediments; fresh-water; marine; Mediterranean lagoon; Metals; microbial carbon; nutrient enrichment; nutrients; Phytoplankton community; polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons; pseudo-nitzschia; sediment resuspension; temporal distribution  
  Résumé Effects of sediment-released contaminants and nitrogen were assessed on phytoplankton communities sampled from Thau lagoon (France, Mediterranean Sea) and one close offshore marine station. Phytoplankton was exposed to sediment elutriate (seawater containing a mix of metals, organic chemicals, and nutrients) or to ammonium enrichment for four days using immersed microcosms exposed to natural conditions of light and temperature. Functional (production – respiration balance) and structural (taxonomy and cell densities) responses of the phytoplankton community were assessed. In the lagoon, both treatments stimulated phytoplankton growth, compare to controls. Conversely in the offshore station, the phytoplankton growth was stimulated only with the sediment elutriate addition. In offshore and lagoon stations, both treatments caused a shift in the taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton. Proliferation of potentially toxic diatoms and dinoflagellates resulted from the addition of elutriate. Correspondence analysis determined that phytoplankton from the offshore station was more sensitive to both treatments compared to the lagoon community. According to daily production and respiration balance, lagoon community metabolism remained heterotrophic (P < R) for all treatments, whereas only transient shifts to net autotrophy (P> R) were observed in the offshore community. Direct toxicity of contaminants released from sediment, if any, was therefore masked by nutrient enrichment effects, whereas indirect evidence of contaminant pressure was highlighted by changes in community composition and metabolism. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.  
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  ISSN 0022-0981 ISBN Médium  
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Auteur Amelineau, F.; Bonnet, D.; Heitz, O.; Mortreux, V.; Harding, A.M.A.; Karnovsky, N.; Walkusz, W.; Fort, J.; Gremillet, D. doi  openurl
  Titre Microplastic pollution in the Greenland Sea: Background levels and selective contamination of planktivorous diving seabirds Type Article scientifique
  Année 2016 Publication (up) Revue Abrégée Environ. Pollut.  
  Volume 219 Numéro Pages 1131-1139  
  Mots-Clés accumulation; Arctic; dovekies alle-alle; identification; ingestion; Little auk; marine debris; north-atlantic; pacific; Plastic; plastic-derived chemicals; Sea ice; Selective uptake; Size; vertical-distribution; Zooplankton  
  Résumé Microplastics have been reported everywhere around the globe. With very limited human activities, the Arctic is distant from major sources of microplastics. However, microplastic ingestions have been found in several Arctic marine predators, confirming their presence in this region. Nonetheless, existing information for this area remains scarce, thus there is an urgent need to quantify the contamination of Arctic marine waters. In this context, we studied microplastic abundance and composition within the zooplankton community off East Greenland. For the same area, we concurrently evaluated microplastic contamination of little auks (Alle alle), an Arctic seabird feeding on zooplankton while diving between 0 and 50 m. The study took place off East Greenland in July 2005 and 2014, under strongly contrasted sea-ice conditions. Among all samples, 97.2% of the debris found were filaments. Despite the remoteness of our study area, microplastic abundances were comparable to those of other oceans, with 0.99 +/- 0.62 m(-3) in the presence of sea-ice (2005), and 2.38 +/- 1.11 m(-3) in the nearby absence of sea-ice (2014). Microplastic rise between 2005 and 2014 might be linked to an increase in plastic production worldwide or to lower sea -ice extents in 2014, as sea-ice can represent a sink for microplastic particles, which are subsequently released to the water column upon melting. Crucially, all birds had eaten plastic filaments, and they collected high levels of microplastics compared to background levels with 9.99 and 8.99 pieces per chick meal in 2005 and 2014, respectively. Importantly, we also demonstrated that little auks took more often light colored microplastics, rather than darker ones, strongly suggesting an active contamination with birds mistaking microplastics for their natural prey. Overall, our study stresses the great vulnerability of Arctic marine species to microplastic pollution in a warming Arctic, where sea-ice melting is expected to release vast volumes of trapped debris. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.  
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  ISSN 0269-7491 ISBN Médium  
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Auteur Brosset, P.; Fromentin, J.-M.; Van Beveren, E.; Lloret, J.; Marques, V.; Basilone, G.; Bonanno, A.; Carpi, P.; Donato, F.; Čikeš Keč, V.; De Felice, A.; Ferreri, R.; Gašparević, D.; Giráldez, A.; Gücü, A.; Iglesias, M.; Leonori, I.; Palomera, I.; Somarakis, S.; Tičina, V.; Torres, P.; Ventero, A.; Zorica, B.; Ménard, F.; Saraux, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Spatio-temporal patterns and environmental controls of small pelagic fish body condition from contrasted Mediterranean areas Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication (up) Revue Abrégée Progress in Oceanography  
  Volume 151 Numéro Pages 149-162  
  Mots-Clés Anchovy; Fish health; Marine monitoring; Sardine  
  Résumé Small pelagic fish are among the most ecologically and economically important marine fish species and are characterized by large fluctuations all over the world. In the Mediterranean Sea, low catches and biomass of anchovies and sardines have been described in some areas during the last decade, resulting in important fisheries crises. Therefore, we studied anchovy and sardine body condition variability, a key index of population health and its response to environmental and anthropogenic changes. Wide temporal and spatial patterns were investigated by analyzing separately data from scientific surveys and fisheries in eight Mediterranean areas between 1975 and 2015.

Results showed that anchovy and sardine body condition as well as maximum size in some areas sharply decreased in most Mediterranean areas along years (except in the Northern Alboran Sea). Despite this general pattern, well-marked environmental differences between sub-regions were highlighted by several analyses and variations in body condition were not found to be homogeneous over all the Mediterranean Sea. Further, other analyses revealed that except for the Adriatic where major changes towards a lower body condition were concomitant with a decrease in river runoffs and chl-a concentration, no concomitant environmental regime shift was detected in other areas.

Together, these analyses highlighted the current poor body condition of almost all small pelagic fish populations in the Mediterranean. Yet, global environmental indices could not explain the observed changes and the general decrease in condition might more likely come from regional environmental and/or anthropogenic (fishing) effects. A prolonged state of poor fish body condition, together with an observed reduced size and early age-at-maturity may have strong ecological, economic and social consequences all around the Mediterranean Sea.
 
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