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Auteur Bryndum‐Buchholz, A.; Tittensor, D.P.; Blanchard, J.L.; Cheung, W.W.L.; Coll, M.; Galbraith, E.D.; Jennings, S.; Maury, O.; Lotze, H.K. url  doi
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  Titre Twenty-first-century climate change impacts on marine animal biomass and ecosystem structure across ocean basins Type Article scientifique
  Année 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée Global Change Biology  
  Volume 25 Numéro 2 Pages (down) 459-472  
  Mots-Clés climate change; ensemble modeling; future projection; marine animal biomass; marine ecosystem models; model intercomparison; ocean basins; uncertainty  
  Résumé Climate change effects on marine ecosystems include impacts on primary production, ocean temperature, species distributions, and abundance at local to global scales. These changes will significantly alter marine ecosystem structure and function with associated socio-economic impacts on ecosystem services, marine fisheries, and fishery-dependent societies. Yet how these changes may play out among ocean basins over the 21st century remains unclear, with most projections coming from single ecosystem models that do not adequately capture the range of model uncertainty. We address this by using six marine ecosystem models within the Fisheries and Marine Ecosystem Model Intercomparison Project (Fish-MIP) to analyze responses of marine animal biomass in all major ocean basins to contrasting climate change scenarios. Under a high emissions scenario (RCP8.5), total marine animal biomass declined by an ensemble mean of 15%–30% (±12%–17%) in the North and South Atlantic and Pacific, and the Indian Ocean by 2100, whereas polar ocean basins experienced a 20%–80% (±35%–200%) increase. Uncertainty and model disagreement were greatest in the Arctic and smallest in the South Pacific Ocean. Projected changes were reduced under a low (RCP2.6) emissions scenario. Under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5, biomass projections were highly correlated with changes in net primary production and negatively correlated with projected sea surface temperature increases across all ocean basins except the polar oceans. Ecosystem structure was projected to shift as animal biomass concentrated in different size-classes across ocean basins and emissions scenarios. We highlight that climate change mitigation measures could moderate the impacts on marine animal biomass by reducing biomass declines in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean basins. The range of individual model projections emphasizes the importance of using an ensemble approach in assessing uncertainty of future change.  
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  Langue en Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1365-2486 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2457  
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Auteur Beiras, R.; Bellas, J.; Cachot, J.; Cormier, B.; Cousin, X.; Engwall, M.; Gambardella, C.; Garaventa, F.; Keiter, S.; Le Bihanic, F.; Lopez-Ibanez, S.; Piazza, V.; Rial, D.; Tato, T.; Vidal-Linan, L. doi  openurl
  Titre Ingestion and contact with polyethylene microplastics does not cause acute toxicity on marine zooplankton Type Article scientifique
  Année 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée J. Hazard. Mater.  
  Volume 360 Numéro Pages (down) 452-460  
  Mots-Clés Benzophenone-3; coastal waters; ecotoxicological evaluation; Embryo-larval bioassays; environmental risk-assessment; isochrysis-galbana; larval development; Marine litter; Marine zooplankton; mytilus-galloprovincialis; organic pollutants; paracentrotus-lividus; plastic debris; Polyethylene; uv-filters  
  Résumé Toxicity of polyethylene microplastics (PE-MP) of size ranges similar to their natural food to zooplanktonic organisms representative of the main taxa present in marine plankton, including rotifers, copepods, bivalves, echinoderms and fish, was evaluated. Early life stages (ELS) were prioritized as testing models in order to maximize sensitivity. Treatments included particles spiked with benzophenone-3 (BP-3), a hydrophobic organic chemical used in cosmetics with direct input in coastal areas. Despite documented ingestion of both virgin and BP-3 spiked microplastics no acute toxicity was found at loads orders of magnitude above environmentally relevant concentrations on any of the invertebrate models. In fish tests some effects, including premature or reduced hatching, were observed after 12 d exposure at 10 mg L-1 of BP-3 spiked PE-MP. The results obtained do not support environmentally relevant risk of microplastics on marine zooplankton. Similar approaches testing more hydrophobic chemicals with higher acute toxicity are needed before these conclusions could be extended to other organic pollutants common in marine ecosystems. Therefore, the replacement of these polymers in consumer products must be carefully considered.  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0304-3894 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2432  
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Auteur MUTHS, D.; TESSIER, E.; BOURJEA, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Genetic structure of the reef grouper Epinephelus merra in the West Indian Ocean appears congruent with biogeographic and oceanographic boundaries Type Article scientifique
  Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Ecology-an Evolutionary Perspective  
  Volume 36 Numéro 3 Pages (down) 447-461  
  Mots-Clés Cytochrome b; marine connectivity; microsatellite; reef fish; West Indian Ocean  
  Résumé The reef fauna connectivity of the West Indian Ocean (WIO) is one of the least studied globally. Here we use genetic analyses of the grouper Epinephelus merra (Bloch 1793) to determine patterns of connectivity and to identify barriers to dispersal in this WIO marine area. Phylogeographic and population-level analyses were conducted on cytochrome b sequences and microsatellites (13 loci) from 557 individuals sampled in 15 localities distributed across the West Indian Ocean. Additional samples from the Pacific Ocean were used to benchmark the WIO population structure. The high level of divergence revealed between Indian and Pacific localities (of about 4.5% in sequences) might be the signature of the major tectonic and climatic changes operating at the Plio-Pleistocene transition, congruently with numerous examples of Indo-Pacific speciation. In comparison, the E. merra sequences from the Indian Ocean constitute a monophyletic clade with a low average genetic distance (d < 0.5%). However both genetic markers indicated some structure within this ocean. The main structure revealed was the isolation of the Maldives from the WIO localities (a different group signature identified by clustering analysis, great values of differentiation). Both marker types reveal further significant structure within the WIO, mainly the isolation of the Mascarene Islands (significant AMOVA and isolation-by-distance patterns) and some patchy structure between the northernmost localities and within the Mozambique Channel. The WIO genetic structure of E. merra appeared congruent with main biogeographic boundaries and oceanographic currents.  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0173-9565 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1436  
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Auteur Navarro, J.; Cardador, L.; Fernández, Á.M.; Bellido, J.M.; Coll, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Differences in the relative roles of environment, prey availability and human activity in the spatial distribution of two marine mesopredators living in highly exploited ecosystems Type Article scientifique
  Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée J. Biogeogr.  
  Volume 43 Numéro 3 Pages (down) 440-450  
  Mots-Clés deviance partitioning; elasmobranchs; environmental variables; human stressors; indicator species; marine biodiversity; Marine conservation; Mediterranean Sea; Raja asterias; Scyliorhinus canicula  
  Résumé Aim Identifying the main factors affecting the spatial distribution of marine predators is essential in order to evaluate their distribution patterns, predict the potential impact of human activities on their populations and design accurate management actions. This information is also valuable from a more general management perspective, as marine predators are often considered indicators of habitat quality. In this context, we aimed to determine the degree to which environmental features, prey availability and human activities interact and influence spatial distribution of two marine mesopredator elasmobranchs, the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) and the Mediterranean starry ray (Raja asterias), living in a highly human-exploited environment. Location Mediterranean Sea. Methods With information obtained from an extended experimental survey, we investigated the relative importance of environmental variables, prey availability and human activities on the spatial distribution of the abundance, biomass and occurrence rate of these marine mesopredators using deviance partitioning analyses. Results Our results revealed that environmental variables were the most important factors explaining the spatial distribution of Mediterranean starry ray, whereas small-spotted catshark distribution was also influenced by prey availability and human factors. From a management point of view, these findings suggest that Mediterranean starry ray could be a good candidate as an indicator species of demersal environmental quality. On the other hand, the distribution of the small-spotted catshark, which responds in an interactive and complex way to environment, prey availability and particular human activities, may be misleading as an environmental indicator. Main conclusions The spatial distribution of elasmobranchs in highly human-impacted marine areas can reflect the interactive and combined effects of multiple factors. To avoid misunderstandings, attention should be paid to statistical procedures allowing the separation of pure and joint contribution of the factors driving the observed spatial patterns.  
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  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1365-2699 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1538  
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Auteur Escalle, L.; Pennino, M.G.; Gaertner, D.; Chavance, P.; Delgado de Molina, A.; Demarcq, H.; Romanov, E.; Mérigot, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Environmental factors and megafauna spatio-temporal co-occurrence with purse-seine fisheries Type Article scientifique
  Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Fish. Oceanogr.  
  Volume 25 Numéro 4 Pages (down) 433-447  
  Mots-Clés cetaceans; Eastern Atlantic Ocean; generalized additive models-boosted regression trees; marine conservation; purse-seine fishery; residual autocovariate; Western Indian Ocean; whale sharks  
  Résumé Tropical tuna purse-seine fisheries spatially co-occur with various megafauna species, such as whale sharks, dolphins and baleen whales in all oceans of the world. Here, we analyzed a 10-year (2002–2011) dataset from logbooks of European tropical tuna purse-seine vessels operating in the tropical Eastern Atlantic and Western Indian Oceans, with the aim of identifying the principle environmental variables under which such co-occurrence appear. We applied a Delta-model approach using Generalized Additive Models (GAM) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) models, accounting for spatial autocorrelation using a contiguity matrix based on a residuals autocovariate (RAC) approach. The variables that contributed most in the models were chlorophyll-a concentration in the Atlantic Ocean, as well as depth and monsoon in the Indian Ocean. High co-occurrence between whale sharks, baleen whales and tuna purse-seine fisheries were mostly observed in productive areas during particular seasons. In light of the lack of a full coverage scientific observer on board program, the large, long-term dataset obtained from logbooks of tuna purse-seine vessels is highly important for identifying seasonal and spatial co-occurrence between the distribution of fisheries and megafauna, and the underlying environmental variables. This study can help to design conservation management measures for megafauna species within the framework of spatial fishery management strategies.  
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  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1365-2419 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1587  
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