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Auteur Jimenez, H.; Dumas, P.; Mouillot, D.; Bigot, L.; Ferraris, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Harvesting effects on functional structure and composition of tropical invertebrate assemblages Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée ICES J. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 73 Numéro 2 Pages 420-428  
  Mots-Clés Bta; marine protected areas; shellfishing; species composition; tropical benthos  
  Résumé Anthropogenic disturbances affect ecosystem structure and functioning. The quantification of their impacts on highly diverse and structurally complex ecosystems, such as coral reefs, is challenging. These communities are facing rising fishing pressure, particularly on Pacific Islands such as New Caledonia. The main objective was to quantify harvesting effects on invertebrate assemblages across two contrasting habitats (soft- and hard-bottom), by comparing communities in marine protected areas (MPAs) with non-MPAs using 10 biological and ecological traits. Patterns of trait composition were compared with those of species composition by non-metric multidimensional scaling and permutational analysis of variance analyses. Traits most responsible for differences between MPAs and non-MPAs were determined using SIMPER analysis, and predictions on shellfishing effects were discussed. A total of 248 species were recorded in hard-bottom communities, mainly characterized by mobile epifauna living on corals, crawling, and possessing a shell (molluscs) or a cuticle (crabs and echinoderms). Soft-bottom habitats contained 166 species, dominated by burrowing and sedentary species, especially shelled (largely bivalves) and worm-like organisms. Clear differences in species and trait composition between MPA and non-MPAs were highlighted in both habitats. Harvesting activities have community-wide effects that change the functional composition of invertebrate assemblages, in particular in terms of living habits and mobility. The observed shifts in benthic communities can affect the functioning of tropical coastal ecosystems and need to be included in small-scale fisheries management in poorly known tropical environments.  
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  ISSN 1054-3139, 1095-9289 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1535  
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Auteur Coll, M.; Steenbeek, J.; Lasram, F.B.; Mouillot, D.; Cury, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre 'Low-hanging fruit' for conservation of marine vertebrate species at risk in the Mediterranean Sea Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2015 Publication Frontiers in Microbiology Revue Abrégée  
  Volume 24 Numéro 2 Pages 226-239  
  Mots-Clés Conservation priorities; cumulative threats; IUCN diversities; marine biodiversity; Marine Protected Areas; Mediterranean Sea  
  Résumé AimConservation priorities need to take the feasibility of protection measures into account. In times of economic pressure it is essential to identify the low-hanging fruit' for conservation: areas where human impacts are lower and biological diversity is still high, and thus conservation is more feasible. LocationWe used the Mediterranean large marine ecosystem (LME) as a case study to identify the overlapping areas of low threats and high diversity of vertebrate species at risk. MethodsThis LME is the first in the world to have a complete regional IUCN Red List assessment of the native marine fish. We augmented these data with distributions of marine mammals, marine turtles and seabirds at risk, and we calculated the spatial distributions of species at risk (IUCN densities). Using cumulative threats we identified priority areas for conservation of species at risk' (PACS), where IUCN diversities are high and threats are low. We assessed whether IUCN diversities and PACS were spatially congruent among taxa and we quantified whether PACS corresponded to current and proposed protected areas. ResultsIUCN densities and PACS were not highly correlated spatially among taxa. Continental shelves and deep-sea slopes of the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean and Tunisian Plateau/Gulf of Sidra are identified as relevant for fish species at risk. The eastern side of the western Mediterranean and the Adriatic Sea are identified as most relevant for endemic fish, and shelf and open sea areas distributed through the LME are most important for marine mammals and turtles at risk, while specific locations of the western Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean and Levantine seas are highlighted for seabirds. Main conclusionsLarge parts of the areas of PACS fell outside current or proposed frameworks to be prioritized for conservation. PACS may be suitable candidates for contributing to the 10% protection target for the Mediterranean Sea by 2020.  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1102  
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Auteur Ban, N.C.; Maxwell, S.M.; Dunn, D.C.; Hobday, A.J.; Bax, N.J.; Ardron, J.; Gjerde, K.M.; Game, E.T.; Devillers, R.; Kaplan, D.M.; Dunstan, P.K.; Halpin, P.N.; Pressey, R.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Better integration of sectoral planning and management approaches for the interlinked ecology of the open oceans Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Policy  
  Volume Numéro Pages  
  Mots-Clés Areas beyond national jurisdiction; Benthic-pelagic interlinkages; High seas; marine conservation; Marine Protected Areas; sustainable fisheries  
  Résumé Open oceans are one of the least protected, least studied and most inadequately managed ecosystems on Earth. Three themes were investigated that differentiate the open ocean (areas beyond national jurisdiction and deep area within exclusive economic zones) from other realms and must be considered when developing planning and management options: ecosystem interactions, especially between benthic and pelagic systems; potential effects of human activities in open oceans on ecological linkages; and policy context and options. A number of key ecological factors differentiate open oceans from coastal systems for planners and managers: (1) many species are widely distributed and, especially for those at higher trophic levels, wide ranging; (2) the sizes and boundaries of biogeographical domains (patterns of co-occurrence of species, habitats and ecosystem processes) vary significantly by depth; (3) habitat types exhibit a wide range of stabilities, from ephemeral (e.g., surface frontal systems) to hyper-stable (e.g., deep sea); and (4) vertical and horizontal linkages are prevalent. Together, these ecological attributes point to interconnectedness between open ocean habitats across large spatial scales. Indeed, human activities – especially fishing, shipping, and potentially deep-sea mining and oil and gas extraction – have effects far beyond the parts of the ocean in which they operate. While managing open oceans in an integrated fashion will be challenging, the ecological characteristics of the system demand it. A promising avenue forward is to integrate aspects of marine spatial planning (MSP), systematic conservation planning (SCP), and adaptive management. These three approaches to planning and management need to be integrated to meet the unique needs of open ocean systems, with MSP providing the means to meet a diversity of stakeholder needs, SCP providing the structured process to determine and prioritise those needs and appropriate responses, and adaptive management providing rigorous monitoring and evaluation to determine whether actions or their modifications meet both ecological and defined stakeholder needs. The flexibility of MSP will be enhanced by the systematic approach of SCP, while the rigorous monitoring of adaptive management will enable continued improvement as new information becomes available and further experience is gained.  
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  ISSN 0308-597x ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 317  
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Auteur LAGABRIELLE, E.; CROCHELET, E.; ANDRELLO, M.; SCHILL, S.R.; ARNAUD-HAOND, S.; ALLONCLE, N.; PONGE, B. url  openurl
  Titre Connecting MPAs – eight challenges for science and management Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquatic Conservation-marine And Freshwater Ecosystems  
  Volume 24 Numéro Pages 94-110  
  Mots-Clés coastal; conservation evaluation; Fishing; Marine Protected Areas; ocean; spatial modelling  
  Résumé Connectivity is a crucial process underpinning the persistence, recovery, and productivity of marine ecosystems. The Convention on Biological Diversity, through the Aichi Target 11, has set the ambitious objective of implementing a ‘well connected system of protected areas’ by 2020. This paper identifies eight challenges toward the integration of connectivity into MPA network management and planning. A summary table lists the main recommendations in terms of method, tool, advice, or action to address each of these challenges. Authors belong to a science–management continuum including researchers, international NGO officers, and national MPA agency members. Three knowledge challenges are addressed: selecting and integrating connectivity measurement metrics; assessing the accuracy and uncertainty of connectivity measurements; and communicating and visualizing connectivity measurements. Three management challenges are described: integrating connectivity into the planning and management of MPA networks; setting quantitative connectivity targets; and implementing connectivity-based management across scales and marine jurisdictions. Finally, two paths toward a better integration of connectivity science with MPA management are proposed: setting management-driven priorities for connectivity research, bridging connectivity science, and MPA network management. There is no single method to integrate connectivity into marine spatial planning. Rather, an array of methods can be assembled according to the MPA network objectives, budget, available skills, data, and timeframe. Overall, setting up ‘boundary organizations’ should be promoted to organize complex cross-disciplinary, cross-sectoral and cross-jurisdiction interactions that are needed between scientists, managers, stakeholders and decision-makers to make informed decision regarding connectivity-based MPA planning and management.  
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  ISSN 1052-7613 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1133  
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Auteur Kaplan, D.; Chassot, E.; Amande, J.M.; Dueri, S.; Demarcq, H.; Dagorn, L.; Fonteneau, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Spatial management of Indian Ocean tropical tuna fisheries: potential and perspectives Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Ices Journal of Marine Science  
  Volume 71 Numéro 7 Pages 1728-1749  
  Mots-Clés Bycatch; conservation; Indian Ocean; Marine protected areas (MPAs); pelagic; spatial management of fisheries; tropical tuna fisheries  
  Résumé Effective use of spatial management in the pelagic realm presents special challenges due to high fish and fisher mobility, limited knowledge and significant governance challenges. The tropical Indian Ocean provides an ideal case study for testing our ability to apply existing data sources to assessing impacts of spatial management on tuna fisheries because of several recent controversial spatial closures. We review the scientific underpinnings of pelagic MPA effects, spatio-temporal patterns of Indian Ocean tuna catch, by catch and fish movements, and the consequences of these for the efficacy of spatial management for Indian Ocean tropical tuna fisheries. The tropical Indian Ocean is characterized by strong environmental fluctuations, regular seasonal variability in catch, large observed tuna displacement distances, relatively uniform catch-per-unit-effort and bycatch rates over space, and high fisher mobility, all of which suggest significant variability and movement in tropical tuna fisheries that are simply not well adapted to static spatial closures. One possible exception to this overall conclusion would be a large time/area closure east of Somalia. If closed for a significant fraction of the year it could reduce purse-seine bycatch and juvenile tuna catch. Dynamic closures following fish migratory patterns are possible, but more focused information on fish movements will be needed for effective implementation. Fortunately, several recent improvements in conventional fishery management and reporting will likely enhance our ability to evaluate spatial and non-spatial management options in the near future, particularly as pertaining to bycatch species.  
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  ISSN 1054-3139 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1199  
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