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Auteur Goetze, J.S.; Januchowski-Hartley, F.A.; Claudet, J.; Langlois, T.J.; Wilson, S.K.; Jupiter, S.D. doi  openurl
  Titre Fish wariness is a more sensitive indicator to changes in fishing pressure than abundance, length or biomass Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecol. Appl.  
  Volume (down) 27 Numéro 4 Pages 1178-1189  
  Mots-Clés artisanal fisheries; Catch Efficiency; Compliance; Conservation; coral-reef management; Customary Management; fish behavior; Fisheries management; Flight Initiation Distance; flight initiation distance; indo-pacific; marine protected areas; periodically harvested closures; predatory fish; Recovery; risk-assessment; stereo-video system  
  Résumé Identifying the most sensitive indicators to changes in fishing pressure is important for accurately detecting impacts. Biomass is thought to be more sensitive than abundance and length, while the wariness of fishes is emerging as a new metric. Periodically harvested closures (PHCs) that involve the opening and closing of an area to fishing are the most common form of fisheries management in the western Pacific. The opening of PHCs to fishing provides a unique opportunity to compare the sensitivity of metrics, such as abundance, length, biomass and wariness, to changes in fishing pressure. Diver-operated stereo video (stereo-DOV) provides data on fish behavior (using a proxy for wariness, minimum approach distance) simultaneous to abundance and length estimates. We assessed the impact of PHC protection and harvesting on the abundance, length, biomass, and wariness of target species using stereo-DOVs. This allowed a comparison of the sensitivity of these metrics to changes in fishing pressure across four PHCs in Fiji, where spearfishing and fish drives are common. Before PHCs were opened to fishing they consistently decreased the wariness of targeted species but were less likely to increase abundance, length, or biomass. Pulse harvesting of PHCs resulted in a rapid increase in the wariness of fishes but inconsistent impacts across the other metrics. Our results suggest that fish wariness is the most sensitive indicator of fishing pressure, followed by biomass, length, and abundance. The collection of behavioral data simultaneously with abundance, length, and biomass estimates using stereo-DOVs offers a cost-effective indicator of protection or rapid increases in fishing pressure. Stereo-DOVs can rapidly provide large amounts of behavioral data from monitoring programs historically focused on estimating abundance and length of fishes, which is not feasible with visual methods.  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1051-0761 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2151  
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Auteur Dubois, M.; Rossi, V.; Ser-Giacomi, E.; Arnaud-Haond, S.; Lopez, C.; Hernandez-Garcia, E. doi  openurl
  Titre Linking basin-scale connectivity, oceanography and population dynamics for the conservation and management of marine ecosystems Type Article scientifique
  Année 2016 Publication Global Ecology and Biogeography Revue Abrégée Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr.  
  Volume (down) 25 Numéro 5 Pages 503-515  
  Mots-Clés coral-reef fish; dispersal; genetic-structure; Larval dispersal; local retention; local retention; marine connectivity; marine ecosystems; marine protected areas; mediterranean littoral fishes; Mediterranean Sea; metapopulation; pelagic larval duration; population dynamics; Population Genetics; protected-area design; sea; self-recruitment; sink dynamics; source  
  Résumé AimAssessing the spatial structure and dynamics of marine populations is still a major challenge in ecology. The need to manage marine resources from ecosystem and large-scale perspectives is recognized, but our partial understanding of oceanic connectivity limits the implementation of globally pertinent conservation planning. Based on a biophysical model for the entire Mediterranean Sea, this study takes an ecosystem approach to connectivity and provides a systematic characterization of broad-scale larval dispersal patterns. It builds on our knowledge of population dynamics and discusses the ecological and management implications. LocationThe semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea and its marine ecosystems are used as a case study to investigate broad-scale connectivity patterns and to relate them to oceanography and population dynamics. MethodsA flow network is constructed by evenly subdividing the basin into sub-regions which are interconnected through the transport of larvae by ocean currents. It allows for the computation of various connectivity metrics required to evaluate larval retention and exchange. ResultsOur basin-scale model predicts that retention processes are weak in the open ocean while they are significant in the coastal ocean and are favoured along certain coastlines due to specific oceanographic features. Moreover, we show that wind-driven divergent (convergent, respectively) oceanic regions are systematically characterized by larval sources (sinks, respectively). Finally, although these connectivity metrics have often been studied separately in the literature, we demonstrate they are interrelated under particular conditions. Their integrated analysis facilitates the appraisal of population dynamics, informing both genetic and demographic connectivities. Main conclusionsThis modelling framework helps ecologists and geneticists to formulate improved hypotheses of population structures and gene flow patterns and to design their sampling strategy accordingly. It is also useful in the implementation and assessment of future protection strategies, such as coastal and offshore marine reserves, by accounting for large-scale dispersal patterns, a missing component of current ecosystem management.  
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  ISSN 1466-822x ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1655  
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Auteur Coll, M.; Steenbeek, J.; Lasram, F.B.; Mouillot, D.; Cury, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre 'Low-hanging fruit' for conservation of marine vertebrate species at risk in the Mediterranean Sea Type Article scientifique
  Année 2015 Publication Frontiers in Microbiology Revue Abrégée  
  Volume (down) 24 Numéro 2 Pages 226-239  
  Mots-Clés Conservation priorities; cumulative threats; IUCN diversities; marine biodiversity; Marine Protected Areas; Mediterranean Sea  
  Résumé AimConservation priorities need to take the feasibility of protection measures into account. In times of economic pressure it is essential to identify the low-hanging fruit' for conservation: areas where human impacts are lower and biological diversity is still high, and thus conservation is more feasible. LocationWe used the Mediterranean large marine ecosystem (LME) as a case study to identify the overlapping areas of low threats and high diversity of vertebrate species at risk. MethodsThis LME is the first in the world to have a complete regional IUCN Red List assessment of the native marine fish. We augmented these data with distributions of marine mammals, marine turtles and seabirds at risk, and we calculated the spatial distributions of species at risk (IUCN densities). Using cumulative threats we identified priority areas for conservation of species at risk' (PACS), where IUCN diversities are high and threats are low. We assessed whether IUCN diversities and PACS were spatially congruent among taxa and we quantified whether PACS corresponded to current and proposed protected areas. ResultsIUCN densities and PACS were not highly correlated spatially among taxa. Continental shelves and deep-sea slopes of the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean and Tunisian Plateau/Gulf of Sidra are identified as relevant for fish species at risk. The eastern side of the western Mediterranean and the Adriatic Sea are identified as most relevant for endemic fish, and shelf and open sea areas distributed through the LME are most important for marine mammals and turtles at risk, while specific locations of the western Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean and Levantine seas are highlighted for seabirds. Main conclusionsLarge parts of the areas of PACS fell outside current or proposed frameworks to be prioritized for conservation. PACS may be suitable candidates for contributing to the 10% protection target for the Mediterranean Sea by 2020.  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1102  
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Auteur LAGABRIELLE, E.; CROCHELET, E.; ANDRELLO, M.; SCHILL, S.R.; ARNAUD-HAOND, S.; ALLONCLE, N.; PONGE, B. url  openurl
  Titre Connecting MPAs – eight challenges for science and management Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquatic Conservation-marine And Freshwater Ecosystems  
  Volume (down) 24 Numéro Pages 94-110  
  Mots-Clés coastal; conservation evaluation; Fishing; Marine Protected Areas; ocean; spatial modelling  
  Résumé Connectivity is a crucial process underpinning the persistence, recovery, and productivity of marine ecosystems. The Convention on Biological Diversity, through the Aichi Target 11, has set the ambitious objective of implementing a ‘well connected system of protected areas’ by 2020. This paper identifies eight challenges toward the integration of connectivity into MPA network management and planning. A summary table lists the main recommendations in terms of method, tool, advice, or action to address each of these challenges. Authors belong to a science–management continuum including researchers, international NGO officers, and national MPA agency members. Three knowledge challenges are addressed: selecting and integrating connectivity measurement metrics; assessing the accuracy and uncertainty of connectivity measurements; and communicating and visualizing connectivity measurements. Three management challenges are described: integrating connectivity into the planning and management of MPA networks; setting quantitative connectivity targets; and implementing connectivity-based management across scales and marine jurisdictions. Finally, two paths toward a better integration of connectivity science with MPA management are proposed: setting management-driven priorities for connectivity research, bridging connectivity science, and MPA network management. There is no single method to integrate connectivity into marine spatial planning. Rather, an array of methods can be assembled according to the MPA network objectives, budget, available skills, data, and timeframe. Overall, setting up ‘boundary organizations’ should be promoted to organize complex cross-disciplinary, cross-sectoral and cross-jurisdiction interactions that are needed between scientists, managers, stakeholders and decision-makers to make informed decision regarding connectivity-based MPA planning and management.  
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  ISSN 1052-7613 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1133  
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Auteur Giakoumi, S.; Guilhaumon, F.; Kark, S.; Terlizzi, A.; Claudet, J.; Felline, S.; Cerrano, C.; Coll, M.; Danovaro, R.; Fraschetti, S.; Koutsoubas, D.; Ledoux, J.-B.; Mazor, T.; Mérigot, B.; Micheli, F.; Katsanevakis, S. doi  openurl
  Titre Space invaders; biological invasions in marine conservation planning Type Article scientifique
  Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Divers. Distrib.  
  Volume (down) 22 Numéro 12 Pages 1220-1231  
  Mots-Clés alien species; biodiversity; biological invasions; coastal; conservation planning; cost; diversity; ecosystem; impacts; management actions; marine biogeographic regions; marine protected areas; Mediterranean Sea; pathways; protected areas; strategy  
  Résumé AimBiological invasions are major contributors to global change and native biodiversity decline. However, they are overlooked in marine conservation plans. Here, we examine for the first time the extent to which marine conservation planning research has addressed (or ignored) biological invasions. Furthermore, we explore the change of spatial priorities in conservation plans when different approaches are used to incorporate the presence and impacts of invasive species. LocationGlobal analysis with a focus on the Mediterranean Sea region. MethodsWe conducted a systematic literature review consisting of three steps: (1) article selection using a search engine, (2) abstract screening and (3) review of pertinent articles, which were identified in the second step. The information extracted included the scale and geographical location of each case study as well as the approach followed regarding invasive species. We also applied the software Marxan to produce and compare conservation plans for the Mediterranean Sea that either protect, or avoid areas impacted by invasives, or ignore the issue. One case study focused on the protection of critical habitats, and the other on endemic fish species. ResultsWe found that of 119 papers on marine spatial plans in specific biogeographic regions, only three (2.5%) explicitly took into account invasive species. When comparing the different conservation plans for each case study, we found that the majority of selected sites for protection (ca. 80%) changed in the critical habitat case study, while this proportion was lower but substantial (27%) in the endemic fish species case study. Main conclusionsBiological invasions are being widely disregarded when planning for conservation in the marine environment across local to global scales. More explicit consideration of biological invasions can significantly alter spatial conservation priorities. Future conservation plans should explicitly account for biological invasions to optimize the selection of marine protected areas.  
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  ISSN 1366-9516 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1704  
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