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Auteur Marinesque, S.; Kaplan, D.; Rodwell, L.D.
Titre Global implementation of marine protected areas : is the developing world being left behind ? Type Article scientifique
Année 2012 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Policy
Volume 36 Numéro 3 Pages 727-737
Mots-Clés Conservation targets; Developing world; Gap analysis; International policy; Marine protected areas (MPAs); Meta-analysis
Résumé While the global network of marine protected areas (MPAs) has recently been evaluated in the light of bio-geographic targets, there has been no attempt to evaluate the relative conservation efforts made by the different nations with regards to their level of socio-economic development. Using information mostly gathered from the world database on protected areas (WDPA), this paper gives a comparative assessment of MPA progress in countries from different economic categories, ranging from advanced economies to least developed countries (LDCs). Potentially explanatory socio-economic and environmental factors, such as fishing activity and existence of vulnerable marine ecosystems, for variability between nations in the level of MPA implementation are also explored. Existing MPA databases demonstrate a clear gap between developed and developing nations in MPA establishment, with advanced economies accounting for two thirds of the global MPA network. Patterns of MPA use, however, remain extremely heterogeneous between countries within each development group. International agreements on marine conservation, above and beyond the influence of country socioeconomic and environmental profiles, are identified as a stimulating factor to MPA implementation. The level dependence on marine resource extraction appears to impede MPA implementation, though the relationship is not statistically significant due to large heterogeneity among countries. Leading developed nations increasingly use MPAs to designate integrated and adaptive management areas, and implementation of large “no-take” reserves in relatively-pristine overseas areas continues to accelerate. These analyses highlight certain limitations regarding our ability to assess the true conservation effectiveness of the existing global MPA network and the need for improved indicators of MPA restrictions and management efforts.
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Auteur institutionnel Thèse
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Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
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ISSN 0308-597x ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 204
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Auteur Batsleer, J.; Marchal, P.; Vaz, S.; Vermard, V.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Poos, J.J.
Titre Exploring habitat credits to manage the benthic impact in a mixed fishery Type Article scientifique
Année 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser.
Volume 586 Numéro Pages 167-179
Mots-Clés growth; sea; reserves; marine protected areas; juvenile; Plaice; Eastern English Channel; Fleet dynamics; vms data; fishing disturbance; central english-channel; Cod; costs; Dynamic state variable modelling; georges bank; Mixed fisheries; tac; Total allowable catch
Résumé The performance of a combined catch quota and habitat credit system was explored to manage the sustainable exploitation of a mix of demersal fish species and reduce the benthic impacts of bottom trawl fisheries using a dynamic state variable model approach. The model was parameterised for the Eastern English Channel demersal mixed fishery using otter trawls or dredges. Target species differed in their association with habitat types. Restricting catch quota for plaice and cod had a limited effect on benthic impact, except when reduced to very low values, forcing the vessels to stay in port. Quota management had a minimal influence on fishing behaviour and hence resulted in a minimal reduction of benthic impact. Habitat credits may reduce the benthic impacts of the trawl fisheries at a minimal loss of landings and revenue, as vessels are still able to reallocate their effort to less vulnerable fishing grounds, while allowing the fishery to catch their catch quota and maintain their revenue. Only if they are reduced to extremely low levels can habitat credits potentially constrain fishing activities to levels that prevent the fisheries from using up the catch quota for the target species.
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Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
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Volume de collection (down) Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0171-8630 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2283
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Auteur Jimenez, H.; Dumas, P.; Mouillot, D.; Bigot, L.; Ferraris, J.
Titre Harvesting effects on functional structure and composition of tropical invertebrate assemblages Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée ICES J. Mar. Sci.
Volume 73 Numéro 2 Pages 420-428
Mots-Clés Bta; marine protected areas; shellfishing; species composition; tropical benthos
Résumé Anthropogenic disturbances affect ecosystem structure and functioning. The quantification of their impacts on highly diverse and structurally complex ecosystems, such as coral reefs, is challenging. These communities are facing rising fishing pressure, particularly on Pacific Islands such as New Caledonia. The main objective was to quantify harvesting effects on invertebrate assemblages across two contrasting habitats (soft- and hard-bottom), by comparing communities in marine protected areas (MPAs) with non-MPAs using 10 biological and ecological traits. Patterns of trait composition were compared with those of species composition by non-metric multidimensional scaling and permutational analysis of variance analyses. Traits most responsible for differences between MPAs and non-MPAs were determined using SIMPER analysis, and predictions on shellfishing effects were discussed. A total of 248 species were recorded in hard-bottom communities, mainly characterized by mobile epifauna living on corals, crawling, and possessing a shell (molluscs) or a cuticle (crabs and echinoderms). Soft-bottom habitats contained 166 species, dominated by burrowing and sedentary species, especially shelled (largely bivalves) and worm-like organisms. Clear differences in species and trait composition between MPA and non-MPAs were highlighted in both habitats. Harvesting activities have community-wide effects that change the functional composition of invertebrate assemblages, in particular in terms of living habits and mobility. The observed shifts in benthic communities can affect the functioning of tropical coastal ecosystems and need to be included in small-scale fisheries management in poorly known tropical environments.
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ISSN 1054-3139, 1095-9289 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1535
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