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Auteur (down) Milner-Gulland, E.J.; Garcia, S.; Arlidge, W.; Bull, J.; Charles, A.; Dagorn, L.; Fordham, S.; Zivin, J.G.; Hall, M.; Shrader, J.; Vestergaard, N.; Wilcox, C.; Squires, D. doi  openurl
  Titre Translating the terrestrial mitigation hierarchy to marine megafauna by-catch Type Article scientifique
  Année 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée Fish. Fish.  
  Volume 19 Numéro 3 Pages 547-561  
  Mots-Clés albatrosses; artisanal fisheries; biodiversity offsets; biodiversity offsetting; circle hooks; conservation; economic incentives; fisheries bycatch; fishing effort; harbor porpoise; leatherback turtle; no net loss; seabird bycatch; sharks and rays; turtles  
  Résumé In terrestrial and coastal systems, the mitigation hierarchy is widely and increasingly used to guide actions to ensure that no net loss of biodiversity ensues from development. We develop a conceptual model which applies this approach to the mitigation of marine megafauna by-catch in fisheries, going from defining an overarching goal with an associated quantitative target, through avoidance, minimization, remediation to offsetting. We demonstrate the framework's utility as a tool for structuring thinking and exposing uncertainties. We draw comparisons between debates ongoing in terrestrial situations and in by-catch mitigation, to show how insights from each could inform the other; these are the hierarchical nature of mitigation, out-of-kind offsets, research as an offset, incentivizing implementation of mitigation measures, societal limits and uncertainty. We explore how economic incentives could be used throughout the hierarchy to improve the achievement of by-catch goals. We conclude by highlighting the importance of clear agreed goals, of thinking beyond single species and individual jurisdictions to account for complex interactions and policy leakage, of taking uncertainty explicitly into account and of thinking creatively about approaches to by-catch mitigation in order to improve outcomes for conservation and fishers. We suggest that the framework set out here could be helpful in supporting efforts to improve by-catch mitigation efforts and highlight the need for a full empirical application to substantiate this.  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1467-2960 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2337  
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Auteur (down) Maufroy, A.; Kaplan, D.M.; Bez, N.; De Molina, A.D.; Murua, H.; Floch, L.; Chassot, E. doi  openurl
  Titre Massive increase in the use of drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (dFADs) by tropical tuna purse seine fisheries in the Atlantic and Indian oceans Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée ICES J. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 74 Numéro 1 Pages 215-225  
  Mots-Clés Bycatch; environment; fads; fish aggregating device; fishing effort; fishing strategy; GPS buoys; management; observers' data; pacific  
  Résumé Since the mid-1990s, drifting Fish Aggregating Devices (dFADs), artificial floating objects designed to aggregate fish, have become an important mean by which purse seine fleets catch tropical tunas. Mass deployment of dFADs, as well as the massive use of GPS buoys to track dFADs and natural floating objects, has raised serious concerns for the state of tropical tuna stocks and ecosystem functioning. Here, we combine tracks from a large proportion of the French GPS buoys from the Indian and Atlantic oceans with data from observers aboard French and Spanish purse seiners and French logbook data to estimate the total number of dFADs and GPS buoys used within the main fishing grounds of these two oceans over the period 2007-2013. In the Atlantic Ocean, the total number of dFADs increased from 1175 dFADs active in January 2007 to 8575 dFADs in August 2013. In the Indian Ocean, this number increased from 2250 dFADs in October 2007 to 10 300 dFADs in September 2013. In both oceans, at least a fourfold increase in the number of dFADs was observed over the 7-year study period. Though the relative proportion of natural to artificial floating objects varied over space, with some areas such as the Mozambique Channel and areas adjacent to the mouths of the Niger and Congo rivers being characterized by a relatively high percentage of natural objects, in no region do dFADs represent <50% of the floating objects and the proportion of natural objects has dropped over time as dFAD deployments have increased. Globally, this increased dFAD use represents a major change to the pelagic ecosystem that needs to be closely followed in order to assess its impacts and avoid negative ecosystem consequences.  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1054-3139 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2114  
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