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Auteur Villeger, S.; Brosse, S.; Mouchet, M.; Mouillot, D.; Vanni, M.J. doi  openurl
  Titre Functional ecology of fish: current approaches and future challenges Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquat. Sci.  
  Volume 79 Numéro 4 Pages 783-801  
  Mots-Clés biodiversity; centrarchid fishes; coral-reef fishes; dietary-morphological relationships; ecosystem processes; Ecosystem services; fish; food-web; fresh-water fish; functional trait; global change; labrid fishes; life-history strategies; ocean; phosphorus-limitation; population regulation; river  
  Résumé Fish communities face increasing anthropogenic pressures in freshwater and marine ecosystems that modify their biodiversity and threaten the services they supply to human populations. To address these issues, studies have been increasingly focusing on functions of fish that are linked to their main ecological roles in aquatic ecosystems. Fish are indeed known to control other organisms through predation, mediate nutrient fluxes, and can act as ecosystem engineers. Here for each of the key functions played by fish, we present the functional traits that have already been used to assess them. We include traits measurable from observations on living individuals, morphological features measured on preserved organisms or traits categorized using information from the literature, and we discuss their respective advantages and limitations. We then list future research directions to foster a more complete functional approach for fish ecology that needs to incorporate functional traits describing, food provisioning and cultural services while accounting more frequently for intraspecific variability. Finally, we highlight ecological and evolutionary questions that could be addressed using meta-analyses of large trait databases, and how a trait-based framework could provide valuable insights on the mechanistic links between global changes, functional diversity of fish assemblages, and ecosystem services.  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1015-1621 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2211  
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Auteur Villon, S.; Mouillot, D.; Chaumont, M.; Darling, E.S.; Subsol, G.; Claverie, T.; Villeger, S. doi  openurl
  Titre A Deep learning method for accurate and fast identification of coral reef fishes in underwater images Type Article scientifique
  Année 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecol. Inform.  
  Volume 48 Numéro Pages 238-244  
  Mots-Clés Automated identification; Convolutional neural network; density; Machine learning; Marine fishes; neural-networks; system; temperate; Underwater pictures; video stations; visual census; vulnerability  
  Résumé Identifying and counting fish individuals on photos and videos is a crucial task to cost-effectively monitor marine biodiversity, yet it remains difficult and time-consuming. In this paper, we present a method to assist the identification of fish species on underwater images, and we compare our model performances to human ability in terms of speed and accuracy. We first tested the performance of a convolutional neural network (CNN) trained with different photographic databases while accounting for different post-processing decision rules to identify 20 fish species. Finally, we compared the performance of species identification of our best CNN model with that of humans on a test database of 1197 fish images representing nine species. The best CNN was the one trained with 900,000 images including (i) whole fish bodies, (ii) partial fish bodies and (iii) the environment (e.g. reef bottom or water). The rate of correct identification was 94.9%, greater than the rate of correct identification by humans (89.3%). The CNN was also able to identify fish individuals partially hidden behind corals or behind other fish and was more effective than humans to identify fish on smallest or blurry images while humans were better to identify fish individuals in unusual positions (e.g. twisted body). On average, each identification by our best CNN using a common hardware took 0.06 s. Deep Learning methods can thus perform efficient fish identification on underwater images and offer promises to build-up new video-based protocols for monitoring fish biodiversity cheaply and effectively.  
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  ISSN 1574-9541 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2475  
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Auteur Blasco, F.R.; McKenzie, D.J.; Taylor, E.W.; Rantin, F.T. doi  openurl
  Titre The role of the autonomic nervous system in control of cardiac and air-breathing responses to sustained aerobic exercise in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A-Mol. Integr. Physiol.  
  Volume 203 Numéro Pages 273-280  
  Mots-Clés Adrenergic tone; bass dicentrarchus-labrax; cardiorespiratory interactions; Cholinergic tone; Fishes; Heart rate; heart-rate; hoplerythrinus-unitaeniatus; Hypoxia; oxygen-tensions; rainbow-trout; salmo-gairdneri; Swimming; synbranchus-marmoratus  
  Résumé Clarias gariepinus is a facultative air-breathing catfish that exhibits changes in heart rate (f(H)) associated with air breaths (AB). A transient bradycardia prior to the AB is followed by sustained tachycardia during breath-hold. This study evaluated air-breathing and cardiac responses to sustained aerobic exercise in juveniles (total length similar to 20 cm), and how exercise influenced variations in f(H) associated with AB. In particular, it investigated the role of adrenergic and cholinergic control in cardiac responses, and effects of pharmacological abolition of this control on air-breathing responses. Sustained exercise at 15, 30 and 45 cm s(-1) in a swim tunnel caused significant increases in f(AB) and f(H), from approximately 5 breaths h(-1) and 60 heartbeats min(-1) at the lowest speed, to over 60 breaths h(-1) and 100 beats min(-1) at the highest, respectively. There was a progressive decline in the degree of variation in f(H), around each AB, as f(AB) increased with exercise intensity. Total autonomic blockade abolished all variation in fH during exercise, and around each AB, but f(AB) responses were the same as in untreated animals. Cardiac responses were exclusively due to modulation of inhibitory cholinergic tone, which varied from >100% at the lowest speed to <10% at the highest. Cholinergic blockade had no effect on f(AB) compared to untreated fish. Excitatory beta-adrenergic tone was approximately 20% and did not vary with swimming speed, but its blockade increased f(AB) at all speeds, compared to untreated animals. This reveals complex effects of autonomic control on air-breathing during exercise in C. gariepinus, which deserve further investigation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.  
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  ISSN 1095-6433 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1714  
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Auteur Paital, B.; Bal, A.; Rivera-Ingraham, G.A.; Lignot, J.-H. openurl 
  Titre Increasing frequency of large-scale die-off events in the Bay of Bengal: reasoning, perspectives and future approaches Type Article scientifique
  Année 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée Indian J. Geo-Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 47 Numéro 11 Pages 2135-2146  
  Mots-Clés fishes; climate change; climate; Aquatic environment; Bay of Bengal; catastrophic events; conservation strategies; natural disasters; redox metabolism; satellite monitoring  
  Résumé The Bay of Bengal has been suffering from increasing frequency of large-scale die-off events for the past decades. Most frequently, these events are attributed to high-speed human development and its harmful effects on environment, which is nevertheless, the biggest challenges currently faced by the world. Increasing urbanization, environmental pollution and climate change are leading to unsustainable ecosystem exploitation and raising health and disease management challenges. Considerable modulations in major ecosystems and major disturbances in the global food chain are some of the most significant consequences of this uncontrolled urbanization. Global warming and El Nino events are few particular phenomena that drive mass deterioration of terrestrial foliages and fauna as well as aquatic organisms, respectively. We here review and discuss the die-off events occurring in the Bay of Bengal for the last decades as well as all the data obtained from the analyses of such events to provide a future perspective on potential management and monitoring strategies directed towards the protection of the flora and fauna of several major ecosystems from such die-off events.  
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  ISSN 0379-5136 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2484  
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Auteur Su, G.; Villeger, S.; Brosse, S. doi  openurl
  Titre Morphological sorting of introduced freshwater fish species within and between donor realms Type Article scientifique
  Année 2020 Publication Revue Abrégée Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr.  
  Volume Numéro Pages  
  Mots-Clés biogeographic realms; body-size; ecology; establishment; exported species; functional diversity; hydropower; imputation; invasion steps; invasion success; morphological traits; morphospace; nonnative fishes; rivers; trade; traits; translocated species  
  Résumé Aim: To determine which morphological characteristics make a fish species a good candidate for introduction and establishment, we tested whether (a) introduced species differ in morphology from non-introduced species (species only existing in native areas and not introduced to new areas) in each donor assemblage (biogeographic realm fauna); (b) within the introduced species, the morphology of established species (self-sustaining introduced species) differs from that of the non-established species; (c) within the established species, those exported out of their native realm have more extreme morphological traits than those translocated within their native realm. Major taxa studied: Freshwater fish. Location: Global. Time period: 1960s-2010s. Methods: We used a global database of freshwater fishes from the six realms. Ten morphological traits were measured on 9,150 species. Principal component analysis was conducted to combine the 10 traits into a multidimensional morphospace. We used permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) and permutational analysis for the multivariate homogeneity of dispersions (PERMDISP2) to compare the distribution of species groups in the morphospace and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to compare their distributions on principal component (PC) axes. Results: The morphology of introduced species differed from that of non-introduced species in all the six biogeographic realms. Among introduced species, established species had more extreme morphological traits than non-established species in most realms. Among established species, exported species had more extreme morphological traits than translocated species. Main conclusions: Morphological differences between introduced and nonintroduced species rely on an anthropogenic trait selection for fisheries and angling, leading to the preference for the introduction of predators with large and laterally compressed bodies. Established introduced species represent a small subset of introduced species morphologies, with these species having more extreme morphological traits, probably making them more efficient in particular habitats than their non-established counterparts. This was particularly marked for fish morphologies adapted to lentic waters. Such a trend was apparent for exported species, which have more extreme traits than translocated species.  
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  ISSN 1466-822x ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2740  
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