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Auteur Christensen, V.; Coll, M.; Buszowski, J.; Cheung, W.W.L.; Frölicher, T.; Steenbeek, J.; Stock, C.A.; Watson, R.A.; Walters, C.J.
Titre The global ocean is an ecosystem: simulating marine life and fisheries Type Article scientifique
Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Global Ecology and Biogeography
Volume 24 Numéro 5 Pages 507-517
Mots-Clés ecosystem model; end-to-end model; fish biomass trends; fish catches; Food security; model tuning; seafood production; world ocean
Résumé Aim There has been considerable effort allocated to understanding the impact of climate change on our physical environment, but comparatively little to how life on Earth and ecosystem services will be affected. Therefore, we have developed a spatial–temporal food web model of the global ocean, spanning from primary producers through to top predators and fisheries. Through this, we aim to evaluate how alternative management actions may impact the supply of seafood for future generations. Location Global ocean. Methods We developed a modelling complex to initially predict the combined impact of environmental parameters and fisheries on global seafood production, and initially evaluated the model's performance through hindcasting. The modelling complex has a food web model as core, obtains environmental productivity from a biogeochemical model and assigns global fishing effort spatially. We tuned model parameters based on Markov chain random walk stock reduction analysis, fitting the model to historic catches. We evaluated the goodness-of-fit of the model to data for major functional groups, by spatial management units and globally. Results This model is the most detailed ever constructed of global fisheries, and it was able to replicate broad patterns of historic fisheries catches with best agreement for the total catches and good agreement for species groups, with more variation at the regional level. Main conclusions We have developed a modelling complex that can be used for evaluating the combined impact of fisheries and climate change on upper-trophic level organisms in the global ocean, including invertebrates, fish and other large vertebrates. The model provides an important step that will allow global-scale evaluation of how alternative fisheries management measures can be used for mitigation of climate change.
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ISSN 1466-8238 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1248
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Auteur Coll, M.; Akoglu, E.; Arreguín-Sánchez, F.; Fulton, E.A.; Gascuel, D.; Heymans, J.J.; Libralato, S.; Mackinson, S.; Palomera, I.; Piroddi, C.; Shannon, L.J.; Steenbeek, J.; Villasante, S.; Christensen, V.
Titre Modelling dynamic ecosystems: venturing beyond boundaries with the Ecopath approach Type Article scientifique
Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Rev Fish Biol Fisheries
Volume 25 Numéro 2 Pages 413-424
Mots-Clés conservation; Cumulative impacts; Ecopath with Ecosim; ecospace; ecosystem-based management; ecosystem modelling; End-to-end modelling; Environmental impact assessment; fishing impacts; Freshwater & Marine Ecology; Zoology
Résumé Thirty years of progress using the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) approach in different fields such as ecosystem impacts of fishing and climate change, emergent ecosystem dynamics, ecosystem-based management, and marine conservation and spatial planning were showcased November 2014 at the conference “Ecopath 30 years-modelling dynamic ecosystems: beyond boundaries with EwE”. Exciting new developments include temporal-spatial and end-to-end modelling, as well as novel applications to environmental impact analyses, in both aquatic and terrestrial domains. A wide range of plug-ins have been added to extend the diagnostic capabilities of EwE, and the scientific community is applying EwE to a diversified range of topics besides fishing impact assessments, such as the development of scientific advice for management, the analysis of conservation issues, and the evaluation of cumulative impacts of environmental and human activities in marine food webs (including habitat modification and the invasion of alien species). Especially promising is the new potential to include the EwE model in integrated assessments with other models such as those related to climate change research. However, there are still many challenges, including the communication of scientific results in management procedures. In addition, other important scientific issues are how to improve model result validation and perform model quality control. During the conference, the Ecopath International Research and Development Consortium was presented as a way for the EwE user community to become involved in the long-term sustainability of the EwE approach. Overall, exciting times are facing the ecosystem modelling scientific community, and as illustrated by the conference: synergistic cooperation is the future path for the EwE approach.
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ISSN 0960-3166, 1573-5184 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1249
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Auteur Diaz, F.; Bănaru, D.; Verley, P.; Shin, Y.-J.
Titre Implementation of an end-to-end model of the Gulf of Lions ecosystem (NW Mediterranean Sea). II. Investigating the effects of high trophic levels on nutrients and plankton dynamics and associated feedbacks Type Article scientifique
Année 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecological Modelling
Volume 405 Numéro Pages 51-68
Mots-Clés End-to-end model; Fisheries; Food web functioning; Plankton; Two-ways coupling
Résumé The end-to-end OSMOSE-GoL model parameterized, calibrated and evaluated for the Gulf of Lions ecosystem (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) has been used to investigate the effects of introducing two-ways coupling between the dynamics of Low and High Trophic Level groups. The use of a fully dynamic two-ways coupling between the models of Low and High Trophic Levels organisms provided some insights in the functioning of the food web in the Gulf of Lions. On the whole microphytoplankton and mesozooplankton were found to be preyed upon by High Trophic Levels planktivorous groups at rates lower than 20% and 30% of their respective natural mortality rates, but these relatively low rates involved some important alterations in the infra-seasonal and annual cycles of both High and Low Trophic Levels groups. They induced significant changes in biomass, fisheries landings and food web interactions by cascading effects. Spatial differential impacts of High Trophic Levels predation on plankton are less clear except in areas in which primary productivity is high. Higher predation rates on plankton groups were encountered within the area of the Rhone river’s influence and in areas associated to the presence of mesoscale eddies in the Northwestern part of the Gulf of Lions, especially. Generally, the pressure of the High Trophic Levels predation was the highest in areas of highest biomass whatever the plankton group considered. The two-ways coupling between Low and High Trophic Levels models revealed both bottom-up and top-down controls in the ecosystem with effects on planktivorous species similar to those observed in the field. The use of the end-to-end model enabled to propose a set of potential mechanisms that may explain the observed decrease in small pelagic catches by the French Mediterranean artisanal fisheries over the last decade.
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ISSN 0304-3800 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2577
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Auteur Grüss, A.; Harford, W.J.; Schirripa, M.J.; Velez, L.; Sagarese, S.R.; Shin, Y.-J.; Verley, P.
Titre Management strategy evaluation using the individual-based, multispecies modeling approach OSMOSE Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecological Modelling
Volume 340 Numéro Pages 86-105
Mots-Clés Ecosystem modeling; end-to-end model; Gulf of Mexico; Management strategy evaluation; Risk of overfishing; Total acceptable catch
Résumé End-to-end ecosystem modeling platforms, including OSMOSE, are key tools for informing ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM). End-to-end models ideally implement two-way interactions between model components, yet two-way interactions between high trophic level (HTL) functional groups and humans (fisheries managers and fishers) are currently missing in OSMOSE. We developed a management strategy evaluation (MSE) framework for OSMOSE, which allows for feedback between HTL functional groups and fisheries managers. This framework couples OSMOSE to a management procedure integrating decision rules and accounting for scientific uncertainty and the acceptable risk of overfishing. We applied the MSE framework to the OSMOSE model of the West Florida Shelf, so as to conduct an evaluation of total allowable catch (TAC) strategies for red grouper (Epinephelus morio) in a context of episodic events of natural mortality. Our simulations indicate that TAC strategies that assume higher scientific uncertainty and/or lower acceptable risk of overfishing result in higher biomass-related metrics for red grouper. However, the levels of scientific uncertainty and acceptable risk of overfishing impose a trade-off between biomass-related and catch-related metrics for red grouper. Our simulations also indicate that updating red grouper TAC more frequently in a context of episodic events of natural mortality does not have a large impact on biomass-related and catch-related metrics for red grouper and other functional groups. The MSE we conducted for red grouper is strategic, and its outcomes, which were obtained under a specific set of assumptions, must be considered preliminary. We discuss how future research could help enhance understanding of the possible impacts of TAC strategies for red grouper. The MSE framework designed for OSMOSE links the dynamics of HTL functional groups to that of fisheries managers, thereby allowing OSMOSE to be better suited for informing EBFM. This framework is an invaluable asset in assessing the performance of fisheries management strategies, but could also be used for other purposes, such as the evaluation of research monitoring programs.
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1615
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Auteur Guiet, J.; Poggiale, J.-C.; Maury, O.
Titre Modelling the community size-spectrum: recent developments and new directions Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecological Modelling
Volume 337 Numéro Pages 4-14
Mots-Clés climate change; Community size-spectrum; ecosystem-based management; end-to-end model; Marine ecosystem model; Trait-based model
Résumé The regularity of the community size-spectrum, i.e., the fact that the total ecosystem biomass contained in logarithmically equal body size intervals remains constant, is a striking characteristic of marine ecosystems. Community size-spectrum models exploit this feature to represent marine ecosystems with two measures: the slope and the intercept (height) of the community spectrum. Size-spectrum models have gain popularity over time to model the properties of fish communities, whether to investigate the impact of fishing, or embedded into end-to-end models to investigate the impact of climate. We review the main features and state of the art developments in the domain of continuous size-spectrum models. The community spectrum emerges from a balance between size-selective predation, growth and biomass dissipation. Further to these basic components, reproduction and various causes of mortality have been introduced in recent studies to increase the model's realism or simply close the mass budget of the spectrum. These different processes affect the stability of the spectrum and affect the predictions of the size-spectrum models. A few models have also introduced a representation of life-history traits in the community size-spectrum. This allows accounting for the diversity of energy pathways in food webs and for the fact that metabolism is both size- and species-specific. The community-level metabolism therefore depends on the species composition of the community. The size-spectrum's regularity at the community level can serve as a conceptual basis for building theories of marine ecosystems’ functioning. It is also used as indicator of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. The mechanistic nature of size-spectrum models as well as their simple and aggregated representation of complex systems makes them good candidates as a strategic management tool. For instance, for testing the impact of different fishing management actions or for projecting marine ecosystem's states under various climate change scenarios.
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1586
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