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Auteur Su, G.; Villeger, S.; Brosse, S. doi  openurl
  Titre Morphological diversity of freshwater fishes differs between realms, but morphologically extreme species are widespread Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr.  
  Volume 28 Numéro 2 Pages 211-221  
  Mots-Clés diet; ecology; patterns; vulnerability; richness; freshwater fish; functional diversity; extinction risk; traits; biogeographical realms; functional redundancy; functional vulnerability; mismatch; morphological traits; morphologically extreme species; rivers  
  Résumé Aim The aim was to analyse the morphological diversity of the world freshwater fish fauna. We tested to which extent the distributions of morphological traits are supported by extreme morphologies and how those extreme morphologies are distributed among realms and affect the functional vulnerability. We also analysed the contribution of between- and within-order morphological variability to the morphological differences between realms. Major taxa studied Freshwater fish. Location Global. Time period 1960s-2010s. Methods We used a global database of freshwater fishes from the six realms. Ten morphological traits were measured on 9,150 species, that is, 75% of the ca. 13,000 freshwater fish species. A principal components analysis was conducted to combine the 10 traits into a multidimensional space. We used Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to compare the difference in morphological diversity between the six realms and between and within the major fish orders. We then identified the morphologically extreme species and quantified their contributions to the morphological range to assess the functional vulnerability and redundancy of fish faunas in the six biogeographical realms for freshwater ecosystems. Results We report a strong morphological variability among freshwater fishes of the world, with significant morphological differences among realm fish faunas, caused by an interplay between taxonomic composition of the realm faunas and morphological differences within orders among the realms. Morphologically extreme species accounted for a large percentage of the filling of the global morphological space and are distributed throughout the world. Main conclusions Fish morphological diversity is largely supported by a few species with extreme trait combinations, indicating that functional vulnerability exists throughout the world. Our results suggest that more attention should be paid to these morphologically extreme species and that they should be protected to ensure the sustainability of functions they support.  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1466-822x ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2528  
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Auteur Aubin, J.; Callier, M.; Rey-Valette, H.; Mathe, S.; Wilfart, A.; Legendre, M.; Slembrouck, J.; Caruso, D.; Chia, E.; Masson, G.; Blancheton, J.P.; Ediwarman; Haryadi, J.; Prihadi, T.H.; Casaca, J. de M.; Tamassia, S.T.J.; Tocqueville, A.; Fontaine, P. doi  openurl
  Titre Implementing ecological intensification in fish farming: definition and principles from contrasting experiences Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée Rev. Aquac.  
  Volume 11 Numéro 1 Pages 149-167  
  Mots-Clés agriculture; agroecology; animal production; aquaculture systems; ecosystem services; emergy accounting; environmental-impact; information; life cycle assessment; life-cycle assessment; mekong delta; perception; responsible aquaculture; sustainable aquaculture; system  
  Résumé Ecological intensification is a new concept in agriculture that addresses the double challenge of maintaining a level of production sufficient to support needs of human populations and respecting the environment in order to conserve the natural world and human quality of life. This article adapts this concept to fish farming using agroecological principles and the ecosystem services framework. The method was developed from the study of published literature and applications at four study sites chosen for their differences in production intensity: polyculture ponds in France, integrated pig and pond polyculture in Brazil, the culture of striped catfish in Indonesia and a recirculating salmon aquaculture system in France. The study of stakeholders' perceptions of ecosystem services combined with environmental assessment through Life Cycle Assessment and Emergy accounting allowed development of an assessment tool that was used as a basis for co-building evolution scenarios. From this experience, ecological intensification of aquaculture was defined as the use of ecological processes and functions to increase productivity, strengthen ecosystem services and decrease disservices. It is based on aquaecosystem and biodiversity management and the use of local and traditional knowledge. Expected consequences for farming systems consist of greater autonomy, efficiency and better integration into their surrounding territories. Ecological intensification requires territorial governance and helps improve it from a sustainable development perspective.  
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  ISSN 1753-5123 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2537  
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Auteur Henckel, L.; Meynard, C.N.; Devictor, V.; Mouquet, N.; Bretagnolle, V. doi  openurl
  Titre On the relative importance of space and environment in farmland bird community assembly Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée PLoS One  
  Volume 14 Numéro 3 Pages e0213360  
  Mots-Clés beta diversity; dispersal; ecology; habitat; landscape; metacommunity structure; model; patterns; scale; skylarks alauda arvensis  
  Résumé The relative contribution of ecological processes in shaping metacommunity dynamics in heavily managed landscapes is still unclear. Here we used two complementary approaches to disentangle the role of environment and spatial effect in farmland bird community assembly in an intensive agro-ecosystem. We hypothesized that the interaction between habitat patches and dispersal should play a major role in such unstable and unpredictable environments. First, we used a metacommunity patterns analysis to characterize species co-occurrences and identify the main drivers of community assembly; secondly, variation partitioning was used to disentangle environmental and geographical factors (such as dispersal limitation) on community structure and composition. We used high spatial resolution data on bird community structure and composition distributed among 260 plots in an agricultural landscape. Species were partitioned into functional classes, and point count stations were classified according to landscape characteristics before applying metacommunity and partitioning analyses within each. Overall we could explain around 20% of the variance in species composition in our system, revealing that stochasticity remains very important at this scale. However, this proportion varies depending on the scale of analysis, and reveals potentially important contributions of environmental filtering and dispersal. These conclusions are further reinforced when the analysis was deconstructed by bird functional classes or by landscape habitat classes, underlining trait-related filters, thus reinforcing the idea that wooded areas in these agroecosystems may represent important sources for a specific group of bird species. Our analysis shows that deconstructing the species assemblages into separate functional groups and types of landscapes, along with a combination of analysis strategies, can help in understanding the mechanisms driving community assembly.  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2548  
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Auteur Leruste, A.; Villeger, S.; Malet, N.; De Wit, R.; Bec, B. doi  openurl
  Titre Complementarity of the multidimensional functional and the taxonomic approaches to study phytoplankton communities in three Mediterranean coastal lagoons of different trophic status Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée Hydrobiologia  
  Volume 815 Numéro 1 Pages 207-227  
  Mots-Clés classification; Classification; disturbance; diversity; ecology; Functional entity; Functional traits; lake phytoplankton; marine-phytoplankton; patterns; size; synechococcus; Taxonomic diversity; traits  
  Résumé We used the individual-based multidimensional functional diversity and the taxonomic approaches in a complementary way to describe phytoplankton communities in three coastal lagoons with different eutrophication status in the South of France. We sampled communities during three seasons, i.e., in autumn, spring, and summer. Using classical taxonomy, 107 taxa/morphotypes were identified in the nine communities. The individual-based functional approach allowed grouping these individuals into 20 functional entities according to their values for 5 traits related to trophic adaptations (cell size, mobility, trophic regime, coloniality, and pelagic/benthic life). Some species (e.g., Prorocentrum micans) emerged in multiple functional entities, showing the importance to consider intraspecific variability. The functional description of phytoplankton communities better reflected the hydrological functioning and the different eutrophication status of the lagoons than the taxonomic approach. Specific functional adaptations were identified in the nine communities. For example, phytoplankton organisms with heterotrophic and potentially mixotrophic abilities occurred when the availability of inorganic nutrient decreased, or when organic matter and small preys were potentially the main nutrient resources. The limitation has also favored small cells highly competitive for nutrients. Using functional indices together with taxonomic description has also helped revealing important aspects of community assembly, such as competitive exclusion in summer.  
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  ISSN 0018-8158 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2322  
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Auteur Legras, G.; Loiseau, N.; Gaertner, J.-C. doi  openurl
  Titre Functional richness: Overview of indices and underlying concepts Type Article scientifique
  Année (down) 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée Acta Oecol.-Int. J. Ecol.  
  Volume 87 Numéro Pages 34-44  
  Mots-Clés biodiversity; community composition; diversity indexes; ecology; ecosystem processes; fish communities; Functional richness indices; Guidelines; Index properties; intraspecific trait variation; Limitations; phylogenetic diversity; species richness; variability  
  Résumé Functional richness, currently defined as the amount of niche space occupied by the species within a community, is one of the three major components of functional diversity. Different indices have been developed in order to quantify this component. However, the range of indices available for assessing functional richness, often mathematically complex and based on different rationales, can cause confusion for field ecologists and lead to misinterpretation of the results obtained. In this context, we have provided the first study exclusively focused on the comparison of the definitions, advantages and drawbacks of a large set of functional richness indices. The first part of this work is focused on four indices (FDP&G, FRic, TOP and N-hypervolumes indices) that are currently the most commonly used for assessing functional richness. We have completed our study by including recently developed indices that enable us to take into account the intraspecific trait variability (i.e. FRim index and TDP framework), because there is currently a growing scientific consensus regarding the necessity of including this aspect in the assessment of the functional diversity of communities. We demonstrate that although authors have argued that their index describes the functional richness, each of them describes only part of it, and this part may strongly differ from one index to another. Rather than advocating the general use of a single index and/or systematically avoiding others, our study highlights the need for selecting indices in close relation with the context, the available data and the aims of each study. Such a strategy is an essential preliminary step for preventing misunderstanding and artefactual controversies. Along these lines, we propose some guidelines to help users in selecting the most appropriate indices according both to the facet of functional richness on which they wish to focus and to the characteristics of the available data.  
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  ISSN 1146-609x ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2323  
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