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Auteur Jeanmougin, M.; Leprieur, F.; Lois, G.; Clergeau, P.
Titre Fine-scale urbanization affects Odonata species diversity in ponds of a megacity (Paris, France) Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Acta Oecologica-International Journal of Ecology
Volume 59 Numéro (up) Pages 26-34
Mots-Clés Evenness; Landscape composition; Model averaging; Ponds; Species diversity; Urban ecology; agricultural landscape; comparative biodiversity; conservation; dragonflies odonata; ecology; fresh-water habitat; patterns; richness; selection; urban
Résumé Current developments in urban ecology include very few studies focused on pond ecosystems, though ponds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots. Using Odonata as an indicator model, we explored changes in species composition in ponds localized along an urban gradient of a megacity (Paris, France). We then assessed the relative importance of local- and landscape-scale variables in shaping Odonata alpha-diversity patterns using a model-averaging approach. Analyses were performed for adult (A) and adult plus exuviae (AE) census data. At 26 ponds, we recorded 657 adults and 815 exuviae belonging to 17 Odonata species. The results showed that the Odonata species assemblage composition was not determined by pond localization along the urban gradient. Similarly, pond characteristics were found to be similar among urban, suburban and periurban ponds. The analyses of AE census data revealed that fine-scale urbanization (i.e., increased density of buildings surrounding ponds) negatively affects Odonata alpha-diversity. In contrast, pond localization along the urban gradient weakly explained the alpha-diversity patterns. Several local-scale variables, such as the coverage of submerged macrophytes, were found to be significant drivers of Odonata alpha-diversity. Together, these results show that the degree of urbanization around ponds must be considered instead of pond localization along the urban gradient when assessing the potential impacts of urbanization on Odonata species diversity This work also indicates the importance of exuviae sampling in understanding the response of Odonata to urbanization. (C) 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
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ISSN 1146-609x ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 602
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Auteur Mazel, F.; Pennell, M.W.; Cadotte, M.W.; Diaz, S.; Dalla Riva, G.V.; Grenyer, R.; Leprieur, F.; Mooers, A.O.; Mouillot, D.; Tucker, C.M.; Pearse, W.D.
Titre Prioritizing phylogenetic diversity captures functional diversity unreliably Type Article scientifique
Année 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée Nat. Commun.
Volume 9 Numéro (up) Pages 2888
Mots-Clés biodiversity; conservation priorities; dependence; ecosystems; global patterns; gradients; hotspots; mammals; plant traits; species richness
Résumé In the face of the biodiversity crisis, it is argued that we should prioritize species in order to capture high functional diversity (FD). Because species traits often reflect shared evolutionary history, many researchers have assumed that maximizing phylogenetic diversity (PD) should indirectly capture FD, a hypothesis that we name the “phylogenetic gambit”. Here, we empirically test this gambit using data on ecologically relevant traits from >15,000 vertebrate species. Specifically, we estimate a measure of surrogacy of PD for FD. We find that maximizing PD results in an average gain of 18% of FD relative to random choice. However, this average gain obscures the fact that in over one-third of the comparisons, maximum PD sets contain less FD than randomly chosen sets of species. These results suggest that, while maximizing PD protection can help to protect FD, it represents a risky conservation strategy.
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ISSN 2041-1723 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2396
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Auteur Calcagno, V.; Jarne, P.; Loreau, M.; Mouquet, N.; David, P.
Titre Diversity spurs diversification in ecological communities Type Article scientifique
Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Nat. Commun.
Volume 8 Numéro (up) Pages 15810
Mots-Clés adaptive radiations; biodiversity; colonization; competition; drive speciation; evolutionary emergence; limiting similarity; stability; sympatric speciation; trade-off
Résumé Diversity is a fundamental, yet threatened, property of ecological systems. The idea that diversity can itself favour diversification, in an autocatalytic process, is very appealing but remains controversial. Here, we study a generalized model of ecological communities and investigate how the level of initial diversity influences the possibility of evolutionary diversification. We show that even simple models of intra- and inter-specific ecological interactions can predict a positive effect of diversity on diversification: adaptive radiations may require a threshold number of species before kicking-off. We call this phenomenon DDAR (diversity-dependent adaptive radiations) and identify mathematically two distinct pathways connecting diversity to diversification, involving character displacement and the positive diversity-productivity relationship. Our results may explain observed delays in adaptive radiations at the macroscale and diversification patterns reported in experimental microbial communities, and shed new light on the dynamics of ecological diversity, the diversity-dependence of diversification rates, and the consequences of biodiversity loss.
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2148
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Auteur van der Heide, T.; Govers, L.L.; de Fouw, J.; Olff, H.; van der Geest, M.; van Katwijk, M.M.; Piersma, T.; van de Koppel, J.; Silliman, B.R.; Smolders, A.J.P.; van Gils, J.A.
Titre A three-stage symbiosis forms the foundation of seagrass ecosystems Type Article scientifique
Année 2012 Publication Revue Abrégée Science
Volume 336 Numéro (up) Pages 1432-1434
Mots-Clés mutualistic networks zostera-marina biodiversity bivalves sulfide architecture diversity sediments bacteria mollusca
Résumé Seagrasses evolved from terrestrial plants into marine foundation species around 100 million years ago. Their ecological success, however, remains a mystery because natural organic matter accumulation within the beds should result in toxic sediment sulfide levels. Using a meta-analysis, a field study, and a laboratory experiment, we reveal how an ancient three-stage symbiosis between seagrass, lucinid bivalves, and their sulfide-oxidizing gill bacteria reduces sulfide stress for seagrasses. We found that the bivalve-sulfide-oxidizer symbiosis reduced sulfide levels and enhanced seagrass production as measured in biomass. In turn, the bivalves and their endosymbionts profit from organic matter accumulation and radial oxygen release from the seagrass roots. These findings elucidate the long-term success of seagrasses in warm waters and offer new prospects for seagrass ecosystem conservation.
Adresse [van der Heide, Tjisse; Olff, Han] Univ Groningen, CEES, Community & Conservat Ecol Grp, NL-9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands. [Govers, Laura L.; van Katwijk, Marieke M.] Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Environm Sci, Inst Water & Wetland Res, Fac Sci, NL-6525 AJ Nijmegen, Netherlands. [de Fouw, Jimmy; van der Geest, Matthijs; Piersma, Theunis; van Gils, Jan A.] NIOZ Royal Netherlands Inst Sea Res, Dept Marine Ecol, NL-1790 AB Den Burg, Texel, Netherlands. [Piersma, Theunis] Univ Groningen, CEES, Anim Ecol Grp, NL-9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands. [van de Koppel, Johan] NIOZ Royal Netherlands Inst Sea Res, Ctr Estuarine & Marine Ecol, NL-4400 AC Yerseke, Netherlands. [Silliman, Brian R.] Univ Florida, Dept Biol, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA. [Smolders, Alfons J. P.] Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Inst Water & Wetland Res, Dept Aquat Ecol & Environm Biol, Fac Sci, NL-6525 AJ Nijmegen, Netherlands. van der Heide, T (reprint author), Univ Groningen, CEES, Community & Conservat Ecol Grp, POB 11103, NL-9700 CC Groningen, Netherlands t.van.der.heide@rug.nl
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ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Médium
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Notes ISI Document Delivery No.: 958BT Times Cited: 0 Cited Reference Count: 27 van der Heide, Tjisse Govers, Laura L. de Fouw, Jimmy Olff, Han van der Geest, Matthijs van Katwijk, Marieke M. Piersma, Theunis van de Koppel, Johan Silliman, Brian R. Smolders, Alfons J. P. van Gils, Jan A. “Waddenfonds” program; Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)-WOTRO[W.01.65.221.00]; NWO-VIDI[864.09.002]; NSF; Andrew Mellon Foundation; Royal Netherlands Academy We thank G. Quaintenne and H. Blanchet for their help with the collection of Loripes; J. Eygensteyn and E. Pierson for technical assistance; and G. J. Vermeij, H. de Kroon, T. J. Bouma, E. J. Weerman, and C. Smit for their comments on the manuscript. T.v.d.H. was financially supported by the “Waddenfonds” program; M.v.d.G. and T.P. by the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO)-WOTRO Integrated Programme grant W.01.65.221.00 awarded to T.P.; and J.d.F. and J.v.G. by the NWO-VIDI grant 864.09.002 awarded to J.v.G. B.S. was supported by an NSF CAREER award, the Andrew Mellon Foundation, and the Royal Netherlands Academy Visiting Professorship. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. A detailed description of all materials and methods, sources, as well as supplementary information are available as supplementary materials. The data are deposited in DRYAD at http://dx.doi.org/10.5061/dryad.210mp. Amer assoc advancement science Washington Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ 734 collection 1381
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Auteur Jacquet, C.; Moritz, C.; Morissette, L.; Legagneux, P.; Massol, F.; Archambault, P.; Gravel, D.
Titre No complexity-stability relationship in empirical ecosystems Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Nat. Commun.
Volume 7 Numéro (up) Pages 12573
Mots-Clés biodiversity; body-size; connectance; diversity; ecopath; interaction strengths; models; perturbations; real food webs; systems
Résumé Understanding the mechanisms responsible for stability and persistence of ecosystems is one of the greatest challenges in ecology. Robert May showed that, contrary to intuition, complex randomly built ecosystems are less likely to be stable than simpler ones. Few attempts have been tried to test May's prediction empirically, and we still ignore what is the actual complexity-stability relationship in natural ecosystems. Here we perform a stability analysis of 116 quantitative food webs sampled worldwide. We find that classic descriptors of complexity (species richness, connectance and interaction strength) are not associated with stability in empirical food webs. Further analysis reveals that a correlation between the effects of predators on prey and those of prey on predators, combined with a high frequency of weak interactions, stabilize food web dynamics relative to the random expectation. We conclude that empirical food webs have several non-random properties contributing to the absence of a complexity-stability relationship.
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Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 2041-1723 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1638
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