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Auteur (up) Barnagaud, J.-Y.; Kissling, W.D.; Tsirogiannis, C.; Fisikopoulos, V.; Villeger, S.; Sekercioglu, C.H.; Svenning, J.-C. doi  openurl
  Titre Biogeographical, environmental and anthropogenic determinants of global patterns in bird taxonomic and trait turnover Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr.  
  Volume 26 Numéro 10 Pages 1190-1200  
  Mots-Clés Anthropocene; Beta diversity; Beta-diversity; biogeographical legacies; biotic homogenization; climate changes; community; components; dispersal; functional diversity; functional diversity; life-history traits; mammal assemblages; net primary production; regional assemblages; specialization; species richness  
  Résumé AimTo assess contemporary and historical determinants of taxonomic and ecological trait turnover in birds worldwide. We tested whether taxonomic and trait turnover (1) are structured by regional bioclimatic conditions, (2) increase in relationship with topographic heterogeneity and environmental turnover and change according to current and historical environmental conditions, and (3) decrease with human impact. Major TaxaBirds. LocationGlobal. MethodsWe used computationally efficient algorithms to map the taxonomic and trait turnover of 8,040 terrestrial bird assemblages worldwide, based on a grid with 110km x 110 km resolution overlaid on the extent-of-occurrence maps of 7,964 bird species, and nine ecological traits reflecting six key aspects of bird ecology (diet, habitat use, thermal preference, migration, dispersal and body size). We used quantile regression and model selection to quantify the influence of biomes, environment (temperature, precipitation, altitudinal range, net primary productivity, Quaternary temperature and precipitation change) and human impact (human influence index) on bird turnover. ResultsBird taxonomic and trait turnover were highest in the north African deserts and boreal biomes. In the tropics, taxonomic turnover tended to be higher, but trait turnover was lower than in other biomes. Taxonomic and trait turnover exhibited markedly different or even opposing relationships with climatic and topographic gradients, but at their upper quantiles both types of turnover decreased with increasing human influence. Main conclusionsThe influence of regional, environmental and anthropogenic factors differ between bird taxonomic and trait turnover, consistent with an imprint of niche conservatism, environmental filtering and topographic barriers on bird regional assemblages. Human influence on these patterns is pervasive and demonstrates global biotic homogenization at a macroecological scale.  
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  ISSN 1466-822x ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2212  
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Auteur (up) Barneche, D.R.; Rezende, E.L.; Parravicini, V.; Maire, Eva; Edgar, G.J.; Stuart-Smith, R.D.; Arias-Gonzalez, J.E.; Ferreira, C.E.L.; Friedlander, A.M.; Green, A.L.; Luiz, O.J.; Rodriguez-Zaragoza, F.A.; Vigliola, L.; Kulbicki, M.; Floeter, S.R. doi  openurl
  Titre Body size, reef area and temperature predict global reef-fish species richness across spatial scales Type Article scientifique
  Année 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr.  
  Volume 28 Numéro 3 Pages 315-327  
  Mots-Clés biodiversity; diversity; patterns; coral-reefs; spatial scale; community assembly; biogeography; extrapolation; local diversity; neutral theory; range size; rarefaction; regional diversity; species energy  
  Résumé Aim To investigate biotic and abiotic correlates of reef-fish species richness across multiple spatial scales. Location Tropical reefs around the globe, including 485 sites in 109 sub-provinces spread across 14 biogeographic provinces. Time period Present. Major taxa studied 2,523 species of reef fish. Methods We compiled a database encompassing 13,050 visual transects. We used hierarchical linear Bayesian models to investigate whether fish body size, reef area, isolation, temperature, and anthropogenic impacts correlate with reef-fish species richness at each spatial scale (i.e., sites, sub-provinces, provinces). Richness was estimated using coverage-based rarefaction. We also tested whether species packing (i.e., transect-level species richness/m(2)) is correlated with province-level richness. Results Body size had the strongest effect on species richness across all three spatial scales. Reef area and temperature were both positively correlated with richness at all spatial scales. At the site scale only, richness decreased with reef isolation. Species richness was not correlated with proxies of human impacts. Species packing was correlated with species richness at the province level following a sub-linear power function. Province-level differences in species richness were also mirrored by patterns of body size distribution at the site scale. Species-rich provinces exhibited heterogeneous assemblages of small-bodied species with small range sizes, whereas species-poor provinces encompassed homogeneous assemblages composed by larger species with greater dispersal capacity. Main conclusions Our findings suggest that body size distribution, reef area and temperature are major predictors of species richness and accumulation across scales, consistent with recent theories linking home range to species-area relationships as well as metabolic effects on speciation rates. Based on our results, we hypothesize that in less diverse areas, species are larger and likely more dispersive, leading to larger range sizes and less turnover between sites. Our results indicate that changes in province-level (i.e., regional) richness should leave a tractable fingerprint in local assemblages, and that detailed studies on local-scale assemblage composition may be informative of responses occurring at larger scales.  
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  ISSN 1466-822x ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2522  
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Auteur (up) Baselga, A.; Leprieur, F. url  doi
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  Titre Comparing methods to separate components of beta diversity Type Article scientifique
  Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Methods Ecol Evol  
  Volume 6 Numéro 9 Pages 1069-1079  
  Mots-Clés beta diversity; community composition; dissimilarity coefficients; nestedness; replacement; richness difference; turnover  
  Résumé * Two alternative frameworks have been proposed to partition compositional dissimilarity into replacement and nestedness-resultant component or into replacement and richness-difference components. These are, respectively, the BAS (Baselga 2010, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 19, 134–143) and POD (Podani & Schmera . Oikos, 120, 1625–1638) frameworks. * We conduct a systematic comparison of parallel components in alternative approaches. We test whether the replacement components derived from the BAS and POD frameworks are independent of richness difference. We also evaluate whether previously reported tests of monotonicity between indices and ecological processes are informative to assess the performance of indices. Finally, we illustrate the consequences of differences between the BAS and POD frameworks using the North American freshwater fish fauna as an empirical example. * In the BAS framework, the nestedness-resultant component (βjne or βsne) accounts only for richness differences derived from nested patterns while, in the POD framework, richness-difference dissimilarity (βrich or βrich.s) accounts for all kind of richness differences. Likewise, the replacement components of both alternative methods account for different concepts. Only the replacement component of the BAS framework (βjtu or βsim) is independent of richness difference, while the parallel component in the POD framework (β−3 or β−3.s) is not (i.e. it is mathematically constrained by richness difference). * Therefore, only the BAS framework allows separating (i) the variation in species composition derived from species replacement which is independent of richness difference (i.e. not mathematically constrained by it) and (ii) the variation in species composition derived from nested patterns.  
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  ISSN 2041-210x ISBN Médium  
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Auteur (up) Bax, N.J.; Miloslavich, P.; Muller-Karger, F.E.; Allain, V.; Appeltans, W.; Batten, S.D.; Benedetti-Cecchi, L.; Buttigieg, P.L.; Chiba, S.; Costa, D.P.; Duffy, J.E.; Dunn, D.C.; Johnson, C.R.; Kudela, R.M.; Obura, D.; Rebelo, L.-M.; Shin, Y.-J.; Simmons, S.E.; Tyack, P.L. url  doi
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  Titre A Response to Scientific and Societal Needs for Marine Biological Observations Type Article scientifique
  Année 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée Front. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 6 Numéro Pages  
  Mots-Clés capacity development; Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD); Essential Ocean Variables (EOV); Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS); Ocean observing; Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs); Un decade for sustainable development  
  Résumé Development of global ocean observing capacity for the biological EOVs is on the cusp of a step-change. Current capacity to automate data collection and processing and to integrate the resulting data streams with complementary data, openly available as FAIR data, is certain to dramatically increase the amount and quality of information and knowledge available to scientists and decision makers into the future. There is little doubt that scientists will continue to expand their understanding of what lives in the ocean, where it lives and how it is changing. However, whether this expanding information stream will inform policy and management or be incorporated into indicators for national reporting is more uncertain. Coordinated data collection including open sharing of data will help produce the consistent evidence-based messages that are valued by managers. The GOOS Biology and Ecosystems Panel is working with other global initiatives to assist this coordination by defining and implementing Essential Ocean Variables. The biological EOVs have been defined, are being updated following community feedback, and their implementation is underway. In 2019, the coverage and precision of a global ocean observing system capable of addressing key questions for the next decade will be quantified, and its potential to support the goals of the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development identified. Developing a global ocean observing system for biology and ecosystems requires parallel efforts in improving evidence-based monitoring of progress against international agreements and the open data, reporting and governance structures that would facilitate the uptake of improved information by decision makers.  
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  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 2296-7745 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2598  
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Auteur (up) Becheler, R.; Cassone, A.-L.; Noel, P.; Mouchel, O.; Morrison, C.L.; Arnaud-Haond, S. doi  openurl
  Titre Low incidence of clonality in cold water corals revealed through the novel use of a standardized protocol adapted to deep sea sampling Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Deep-Sea Res. Part II-Top. Stud. Oceanogr.  
  Volume 145 Numéro Pages 120-130  
  Mots-Clés diversity; dispersal; disturbance; Lophelia pertusa; Madrepora oculata; organisms; population-structure; asexual reproduction; Clonality; Cold-water coral; Fine-grained spatial genetic structure; gorgonian coral; lophelia-pertusa; pertusa linnaeus 1758; spatial genetic-structure; Standardized sampling  
  Résumé Sampling in the deep sea is a technical challenge, which has hindered the acquisition of robust datasets that are necessary to determine the fine-grained biological patterns and processes that may shape genetic diversity. Estimates of the extent of clonality in deep-sea species, despite the importance of clonality in shaping the local dynamics and evolutionary trajectories, have been largely obscured by such limitations. Cold-water coral reefs along European margins are formed mainly by two reef-building species, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. Here we present a fine-grained analysis of the genotypic and genetic composition of reefs occurring in the Bay of Biscay, based on an innovative deep-sea sampling protocol. This strategy was designed to be standardized, random, and allowed the georeferencing of all sampled colonies. Clonal lineages discriminated through their Multi-Locus Genotypes (MLG) at 6-7 microsatellite markers could thus be mapped to assess the level of clonality and the spatial spread of clonal lineages. High values of clonal richness were observed for both species across all sites suggesting a limited occurrence of clonality, which likely originated through fragmentation. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation analysis underlined the possible occurrence of fine-grained genetic structure in several populations of both L. pertusa and M. oculata. The two cold-water coral species examined had contrasting patterns of connectivity among canyons, with among-canyon genetic structuring detected in M. oculata, whereas L. pertusa was panmictic at the canyon scale. This study exemplifies that a standardized, random and georeferenced sampling strategy, while challenging, can be applied in the deep sea, and associated benefits outlined here include improved estimates of fine grained patterns of clonality and dispersal that are comparable across sites and among species.  
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  ISSN 0967-0645 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2257  
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