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Auteur D'Agata, S.; Mouillot, D.; Kulbicki, M.; Andrefouet, S.; Bellwood, D.R.; Cinner, J.E.; Cowman, P.F.; Kronen, M.; Pinca, S.; Vigliola, L.
Titre Human-Mediated Loss of Phylogenetic and Functional Diversity in Coral Reef Fishes Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Current Biology
Volume 24 Numéro 5 Pages 555-560
Mots-Clés biodiversity hotspots; climate-change; communities; evolutionary; great-barrier-reef; land-use; parrotfishes; patterns; productivity; resilience
Résumé Beyond the loss of species richness [1-3], human activities may also deplete the breadth of evolutionary history (phylogenetic diversity) and the diversity of roles (functional diversity) carried out by species within communities, two overlooked components of biodiversity. Both are, however, essential to sustain ecosystem functioning and the associated provision of ecosystem services, particularly under fluctuating environmental conditions [1-7]. We quantified the effect of human activities on the taxonomic, phylogenetic, and functional diversity of fish communities in coral reefs, while teasing apart the influence of biogeography and habitat along a gradient of human pressure across the Pacific Ocean. We detected nonlinear relationships with significant breaking points in the impact of human population density on phylogenetic and functional diversity of parrot-fishes, at 25 and 15 inhabitants/km(2), respectively, while parrot-fish species richness decreased linearly along the same population gradient. Over the whole range, species richness decreased by 11.7%, while phylogenetic and functional diversity dropped by 35.8% and 46.6%, respectively. Our results call for caution when using species richness as a benchmark for measuring the status of ecosystems since it appears to be less responsive to variation in human population densities than its phylogenetic and functional counterparts, potentially imperiling the functioning of coral reef ecosystems.
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Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 645
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Auteur Leprieur, F.; Colosio, S.; Descombes, P.; Parravicini, V.; Kulbicki, M.; Cowman, P.F.; Bellwood, D.R.; Mouillot, D.; Pellissier, L.
Titre Historical and contemporary determinants of global phylogenetic structure in tropical reef fish faunas Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecography
Volume 39 Numéro 9 Pages 825-835
Mots-Clés biodiversity hotspots; climate-change; community ecology; coral-reefs; damselfishes teleostei; evolutionary origins; genetic-structure; indo-pacific; latitudinal diversity gradient; species richness
Résumé Identifying the main determinants of tropical marine biodiversity is essential for devising appropriate conservation measures mitigating the ongoing degradation of coral reef habitats. Based on a gridded distribution database and phylogenetic information, we compared the phylogenetic structure of assemblages for three tropical reef fish families (Labridae: wrasses, Pomacentridae: damselfishes and Chaetodontidae: butterflyfishes) using the net relatedness (NRI) and nearest taxon (NTI) indices. We then related these indices to contemporary and historical environmental conditions of coral reefs using spatial regression analyses. Higher levels of phylogenetic clustering were found for fish assemblages in the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA), and more particularly when considering the NTI index. The phylogenetic structure of the Pomacentridae, and to a lower extent of the Chaeotodontidae and Labridae, was primarily associated with the location of refugia during the Quaternary period. Phylogenetic clustering in the IAA may partly result from vicariance events associated with coral reef fragmentation during the glacial periods of the Quaternary. Variation in the patterns among fish families further suggest that dispersal abilities may have interacted with past habitat availability in shaping the phylogenetic structure of tropical reef fish assemblages.
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ISSN 0906-7590 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1633
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Auteur Mazel, F.; Guilhaumon, F.; Mouquet, N.; Devictor, V.; Gravel, D.; Renaud, J.; Cianciaruso, M.V.; Loyola, R.; Diniz, J.A.F.; Mouillot, D.; Thuiller, W.
Titre Multifaceted diversity-area relationships reveal global hotspots of mammalian species, trait and lineage diversity Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Global Ecology and Biogeography
Volume 23 Numéro 8 Pages 836-847
Mots-Clés Conservation biogeography; Hill's numbers; biodiversity hotspots; congruent; conservation priorities; diversity indices; ecoregions; endemism; evolutionary; functional diversity-area; histories; mammals; phylogenetic diversity; phylogenetic diversity-area; relationship; richness gradients; spatial-patterns; species-area relationship
Résumé Aim To define biome-scale hotspots of phylogenetic and functional mammalian biodiversity (PD and FD, respectively) and compare them with 'classical' hotspots based on species richness (SR) alone. Location Global. Methods SR, PD and FD were computed for 782 terrestrial ecoregions using the distribution ranges of 4616 mammalian species. We used a set of comprehensive diversity indices unified by a recent framework incorporating the relative species coverage in each ecoregion. We built large-scale multifaceted diversity-area relationships to rank ecoregions according to their levels of biodiversity while accounting for the effect of area on each facet of diversity. Finally we defined hotspots as the top-ranked ecoregions. Results While ignoring relative species coverage led to a fairly good congruence between biome-scale top ranked SR, PD and FD hotspots, ecoregions harbouring a rich and abundantly represented evolutionary history and FD did not match with the top-ranked ecoregions defined by SR. More importantly PD and FD hotspots showed important spatial mismatches. We also found that FD and PD generally reached their maximum values faster than SR as a function of area. Main conclusions The fact that PD/FD reach their maximum value faster than SR could suggest that the two former facets might be less vulnerable to habitat loss than the latter. While this point is expected, it is the first time that it has been quantified at a global scale and should have important consequences for conservation. Incorporating relative species coverage into the delineation of multifaceted hotspots of diversity led to weak congruence between SR, PD and FD hotspots. This means that maximizing species number may fail to preserve those nodes (in the phylogenetic or functional tree) that are relatively abundant in the ecoregion. As a consequence it may be of prime importance to adopt a multifaceted biodiversity perspective to inform conservation strategies at a global scale.
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Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1466-822x ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 722
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Auteur Mouillot, D.; De Bortoli, J.; Leprieur, F.; Parravicini, V.; Kulbicki, M.; Bellwood, D.R.
Titre The challenge of delineating biogeographical regions: nestedness matters for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes Type Article scientifique
Année 2013 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Biogeography
Volume 40 Numéro 12 Pages 2228-2237
Mots-Clés -diversity; Archipelago; Coral Triangle; Indo-Australian; Pae; beta-diversity; biodiversity hotspots; conservation; delineation; dissimilarity; dung beetles; endemicity; evolutionary history; global; historical biogeography; nestedness; parsimony analysis; partitioning; patterns; reef fish assemblages; spatial-patterns; turnover
Résumé AimThe delineation of regions is a critical procedure in biogeography, but there is still no consensus about the best approach. Traditionally, a compositional dissimilarity index and a clustering algorithm are used to partition locations into regions. However, the choice of index and algorithm may have a profound impact on the final result, particularly when locations display different levels of species richness and when they are nested within each other. Our objective was to estimate the influence of species nestedness among locations on the delineation of biogeographical regions. LocationAs a case study, we used coral reef fishes (families Chaetodontidae, Pomacentridae and Labridae) from the Indo-Pacific, where a large richness gradient extends, often as a series of nested assemblages, from the species-rich Indo-Australian Archipelago (Coral Triangle) to species-poor peripheral locations. MethodsWe used the turnover and nestedness components of the SOrensen and Jaccard dissimilarity indices to estimate the effect of nestedness on the delineation of biogeographical regions. In addition, we compared the results with those obtained using a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE). ResultsLow Mantel correlation values revealed that the PAE method assembled locations in a very different way than methods based on dissimilarity indices for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. We also found that nestedness mattered when delineating biogeographical units because, for both the SOrensen and the Jaccard indices, reef fish assemblages were grouped differently depending on whether we used the turnover component of each index or the complete index, including the nestedness component. The turnover component ignored variation in species richness attributable to differences in habitat area between locations, and permitted a delineation based solely on species replacement. Main conclusionsWe demonstrate that the choice of the component used to measure dissimilarity between species assemblages is critical, because it may strongly influence regional delineations, at least for Indo-Pacific coral reef fishes. We conclude that the two components of the dissimilarity indices can reveal complementary insights into the role that history may have played in shaping extant patterns of biodiversity.
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0305-0270 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 879
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