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Auteur Martinez, E.; Gorgues, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Fontana, C.; Sauzede, R.; Menkes, C.; Uitz, J.; Di Lorenzo, E.; Fablet, R.
Titre Reconstructing Global Chlorophyll-a Variations Using a Non-linear Statistical Approach Type Article scientifique
Année 2020 Publication (down) Revue Abrégée Front. Mar. Sci.
Volume 7 Numéro Pages 464
Mots-Clés climate; decadel variability; equatorial pacific; general-circulation; global scale; indian-ocean; interannual variability; machine learning; marine primary production; north-atlantic; ocean color algorithms; phytoplankton variability; satellite ocean color; seawifs; tropical pacific
Résumé Monitoring the spatio-temporal variations of surface chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl, a proxy of phytoplankton biomass) greatly benefited from the availability of continuous and global ocean color satellite measurements from 1997 onward. These two decades of satellite observations are however still too short to provide a comprehensive description of Chl variations at decadal to multi-decadal timescales. This paper investigates the ability of a machine learning approach (a non-linear statistical approach based on Support Vector Regression, hereafter SVR) to reconstruct global spatio-temporal Chl variations from selected surface oceanic and atmospheric physical parameters. With a limited training period (13 years), we first demonstrate that Chl variability from a 32-years global physical-biogeochemical simulation can generally be skillfully reproduced with a SVR using the model surface variables as input parameters. We then apply the SVR to reconstruct satellite Chl observations using the physical predictors from the above numerical model and show that the Chl reconstructed by this SVR more accurately reproduces some aspects of observed Chl variability and trends compared to the model simulation. This SVR is able to reproduce the main modes of interannual Chl variations depicted by satellite observations in most regions, including El Nino signature in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. In stark contrast with the trends simulated by the biogeochemical model, it also accurately captures spatial patterns of Chl trends estimated by satellite data, with a Chl increase in most extratropical regions and a Chl decrease in the center of the subtropical gyres, although the amplitude of these trends are underestimated by half. Results from our SVR reconstruction over the entire period (1979-2010) also suggest that the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation drives a significant part of decadal Chl variations in both the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. Overall, this study demonstrates that non-linear statistical reconstructions can be complementary tools to in situ and satellite observations as well as conventional physical-biogeochemical numerical simulations to reconstruct and investigate Chl decadal variability.
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Auteur Boavida, J.; Becheler, R.; Choquet, M.; Frank, N.; Taviani, M.; Bourillet, J.-F.; Meistertzheim, A.-L.; Grehan, A.; Savini, A.; Arnaud-Haond, S.
Titre Out of the Mediterranean? Post-glacial colonization pathways varied among cold-water coral species Type Article scientifique
Année 2019 Publication (down) Revue Abrégée J. Biogeogr.
Volume 46 Numéro 5 Pages 915-931
Mots-Clés biodiversity; cold-water corals; computer-program; deep-sea; deep-sea corals; genetic-structure; glacial marine refugia; glacial refugia; growth; in-situ; Last Glacial Maximum; Lophelia pertusa; lophelia-pertusa; Madrepora oculata; marine phylogeography; north-atlantic ocean; software
Résumé Aim: To infer cold-water corals' (CWC) post-glacial phylogeography and assess the role of Mediterranean Sea glacial refugia as origins for the recolonization of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Location: Northeastern Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Taxon: Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata. Methods: We sampled CWC using remotely operated vehicles and one sediment core for coral and sediment dating. We characterized spatial genetic patterns (microsatellites and a nuclear gene fragment) using networks, clustering and measures of genetic differentiation. Results: Inferences from microsatellite and sequence data were congruent, and showed a contrast between the two CWC species. Populations of L. pertusa present a dominant pioneer haplotype, local haplotype radiations and a majority of endemic variation in lower latitudes. Madrepora oculata populations are differentiated across the northeastern Atlantic and genetic lineages are poorly admixed even among neighbouring sites. Conclusions: Our study shows contrasting post-glacial colonization pathways for two key habitat-forming species in the deep sea. The CWC L. pertusa has likely undertaken a long-range (post-glacial) recolonization of the northeastern Atlantic directly from refugia located along southern Europe (Mediterranean Sea or Gulf of Cadiz). In contrast, the stronger genetic differentiation of M. oculata populations mirrors the effects of long-term isolation in multiple refugia. We suggest that the distinct and genetically divergent, refugial populations initiated the post-glacial recolonization of the northeastern Atlantic margins, leading to a secondary contact in the northern range and reaching higher latitudes much later, in the late Holocene. This study highlights the need to disentangle the influences of present-day dispersal and evolutionary processes on the distribution of genetic polymorphisms, to unravel the influence of past and future environmental changes on the connectivity of cosmopolitan deep-sea ecosystems associated with CWC.
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ISSN 0305-0270 ISBN Médium
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Notes WOS:000471344900007 Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2602
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Auteur Cocquempot, L.; Delacourt, C.; Paillet, J.; Riou, P.; Aucan, J.; Castelle, B.; Charria, G.; Claudet, J.; Conan, P.; Coppola, L.; Hocdé, R.; Planes, S.; Raimbault, P.; Savoye, N.; Testut, L.; Vuillemin, R.
Titre Coastal Ocean and Nearshore Observation: A French Case Study Type Article scientifique
Année 2019 Publication (down) Revue Abrégée Front. Mar. Sci.
Volume 6 Numéro Pages Unsp-324
Mots-Clés 2013/2014 winter; atlantic coast; coastal ocean; coastline; diversity; ecosystem; increases; interdisciplinary; national structuration; nutrient ratios; observation infrastructure; phytoplankton community; temperature; variability; wave activity
Résumé To understand and predict the physical, chemical, and biological processes at play in coastal and nearshore marine areas requires an integrated, interdisciplinary approach. The case study of the French structuration of coastal ocean and nearshore observing systems provides an original overview on a federative research infrastructure named ILICO. It is a notable example of national structuration and pan-institution efforts to investigate the forefront of knowledge on the processes at work within the critical coastal zone. ILICO comprises, in a pluridisciplinary approach, eight distributed network-systems of observation and data analysis that are accredited and financially supported by French research institutions and the French Ministry for Higher Education, Research, and Innovation. ILICO observation points are implemented along metropolitan and overseas French coasts, where coastline dynamics, sea level evolution, physical and biogeochemical water properties, coastal water dynamics, phytoplankton composition, and health of coral reefs are monitored in order to address a wide range of scientific questions. To give an overview of the diversity and potential of the observations carried out, this paper offers a detailed presentation of three constituting networks: Service Observation en Milieu LITtoral (SOMLIT), with homogeneous sampling strategies, DYNALIT, with heterogeneous sampling strategies adapted to different environments, and Mediterranean Ocean Observing System for the Environment (MOOSE), an integrated, pluri-disciplinary coasta/offshore regional observatory in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. ILICO was conceived using a European framework. It addresses the great challenges of the next decade in terms of sustainability, cost-efficiency, interoperability, and innovation. This paper emphasizes the added-value of federating these systems, and highlights some recommendations for the future.
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2604
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Auteur Escalle, L.; Pennino, M.G.; Gaertner, D.; Chavance, P.; Delgado de Molina, A.; Demarcq, H.; Romanov, E.; Mérigot, B.
Titre Environmental factors and megafauna spatio-temporal co-occurrence with purse-seine fisheries Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication (down) Revue Abrégée Fish. Oceanogr.
Volume 25 Numéro 4 Pages 433-447
Mots-Clés cetaceans; Eastern Atlantic Ocean; generalized additive models-boosted regression trees; marine conservation; purse-seine fishery; residual autocovariate; Western Indian Ocean; whale sharks
Résumé Tropical tuna purse-seine fisheries spatially co-occur with various megafauna species, such as whale sharks, dolphins and baleen whales in all oceans of the world. Here, we analyzed a 10-year (2002–2011) dataset from logbooks of European tropical tuna purse-seine vessels operating in the tropical Eastern Atlantic and Western Indian Oceans, with the aim of identifying the principle environmental variables under which such co-occurrence appear. We applied a Delta-model approach using Generalized Additive Models (GAM) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) models, accounting for spatial autocorrelation using a contiguity matrix based on a residuals autocovariate (RAC) approach. The variables that contributed most in the models were chlorophyll-a concentration in the Atlantic Ocean, as well as depth and monsoon in the Indian Ocean. High co-occurrence between whale sharks, baleen whales and tuna purse-seine fisheries were mostly observed in productive areas during particular seasons. In light of the lack of a full coverage scientific observer on board program, the large, long-term dataset obtained from logbooks of tuna purse-seine vessels is highly important for identifying seasonal and spatial co-occurrence between the distribution of fisheries and megafauna, and the underlying environmental variables. This study can help to design conservation management measures for megafauna species within the framework of spatial fishery management strategies.
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ISSN 1365-2419 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1587
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Auteur Salvetat, J.; Lebourges-Dhaussy, A.; Travassos, P.; Gastauer, S.; Roudaut, G.; Vargas, G.; Bertrand, A.
Titre In situ target strength measurement of the black triggerfish Melichthys niger and the ocean triggerfish Canthidermis sufflamen Type Article scientifique
Année 2020 Publication (down) Revue Abrégée Mar. Freshw. Res.
Volume 71 Numéro 9 Pages 1118-1127
Mots-Clés acoustics; aggregating devices fads; archipelago; atlantic; behavior; biomass estimation; frequency; north-east Brazil; shore fishes; small tuna; spinner dolphins; swimbladder; target strength-length relationships; tropical ecosystem; tropical tuna; underwater acoustics; underwater video
Résumé Triggerfish are widely distributed in tropical waters where they play an important ecological role. The black triggerfish Melichthys niger may be the dominant species around oceanic tropical islands, whereas pelagic triggerfish, such as the ocean triggerfish Canthidermis sufflamen, can assemble around fish aggregating devices (FADs) where they are a common bycatch of tuna fisheries. In this study we combined acoustic and optical recordings to provide the first in situ target strength (TS) measurement of black and ocean triggerfish. Data were collected in the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha off north-east Brazil. The mean TS of a 27.8-cm-long black triggerfish at 70 and 200 kHz was -39.3 dB re 1 m(2) (CV = 14.0%) and -38.9 dB re 1 m(2) (CV = 14.4%) respectively. The mean TS values of ocean triggerfish (with a size range of 39-44 cm) at 70 and 200 kHz were -36.0 dB re 1 m(2) (CV = 15.7%) and -33.3 dB re 1 m(2) (CV = 14.0%) respectively. This work opens up the field for acoustic biomass estimates. In addition, we have shown that TS values for ocean triggerfish are within the same range as those of small tunas. Therefore, acoustic data transmitted from FADs equipped with echosounders can introduce a bias in tuna acoustic biomass estimation and lead to increased rates of bycatch.
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ISSN 1323-1650 ISBN Médium
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Notes WOS:000562536400007 Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2872
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