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Auteur Gruss, A.; Kaplan, D.; Guenette, S.; Roberts, C.M.; Botsford, L.W.
Titre Consequences of adult and juvenile movement for marine protected areas Type Article scientifique
Année (down) 2011 Publication Revue Abrégée Biological Conservation
Volume 144 Numéro Pages 692-702
Mots-Clés areas; Density-dependent; Density-independent; Dynamic; marine; movement; (MPAs); MPAs; protected; Spillover; Targeted
Résumé Adult and juvenile mobility has a considerable influence on the functioning of marine protected areas. It is recognized that adult and juvenile movement reduces the core benefits of protected areas, namely protecting the full age-structure of marine populations, while at the same time perhaps improving fisheries yield over the no-reserve situation through export of individuals from protected areas. Nevertheless, the study of the consequences of movement on protected area functioning is unbalanced. Significant attention has been paid to the influence of certain movement patterns, such as diffusive movement and home ranges, while the impacts of others, such as density-dependent movements and ontogenetic migrations, have been relatively ignored. Here we review the diversity of density-independent and density-dependent movement patterns, as well as what is currently known about their consequences for the conservation and fisheries effects of marine protected areas. We highlight a number of 'partially addressed' issues in marine protected area research, such as the effects of reserves targeting specific life phases, and a number of essentially unstudied issues, such as density-dependent movements, nomadism, ontogenetic migrations, behavioral polymorphism and 'dynamic' reserves that adjust location as a realtime response to habitat changes. Assessing these issues will be essential to creating effective marine protected area networks for mobile species and accurately assessing reserve impacts on these species.
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ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 141
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Auteur Yemane, D.; Shin, Y.-J.; Field, J.G.
Titre Exploring the effect of Marine Protected Areas on the dynamics of fish communities in the southern Benguela : an individual-based modelling approach Type Article scientifique
Année (down) 2009 Publication Revue Abrégée Ices Journal of Marine Science
Volume 66 Numéro 2 Pages 378-387
Mots-Clés ecosystem models; individual-based models; Marine Protected Areas; southern Benguela
Résumé Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) have been suggested as a tool that can achieve some of the goals of an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF), e.g. prevention of overexploitation, biodiversity conservation, recovery of overexploited population, but the consequences of their establishment on the dynamics of protected components are often unclear. Spatial and multispecies models can be used to investigate the effects of their introduction. An individual-based, spatially explicit, size-structured, multispecies model (known as OSMOSE) is used to investigate the likely consequences of the introduction of three MPAs off the coast of South Africa, individually or in combination. The simultaneous introduction of the MPAs affected varying proportions of the distribution of the modelled species (5-17%) and 12% of the distribution of the whole community. In general, the introduction of the MPAs in the different scenarios resulted in a relative increase in the biomass of large predatory fish and a decrease in the biomass of small pelagic fish. The simulation demonstrates that consideration of trophic interactions is necessary when introducing MPAs, with indirect effects that may be detrimental to some (mainly smaller prey) species.
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1054-3139 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 16
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Auteur Moffitt, E.A.; Botsford, L.W.; Kaplan, D.; O'Farrell, M.R.
Titre Marine reserve networks for species that move within a home range Type Article scientifique
Année (down) 2009 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecological Applications
Volume 19 Numéro 7 Pages 1835-1847
Mots-Clés adult movement; dispersal per recruit; fisheries; home range; marine; marine reserves; protected areas; spillover; sustainability; yield
Résumé Marine reserves are expected to benefit a wide range of species, but most models used to evaluate their effects assume that adults are sedentary, thereby potentially overestimating population persistence. Many nearshore marine organisms move within a home range as adults, and there is a need to understand the effects of this type of movement on reserve performance. We incorporated movement within a home range into a spatially explicit marine reserve model in order to assess the combined effects of adult and larval movement on persistence and yield in a general, strategic framework. We describe how the capacity of a population to persist decreased with increasing home range size in a manner that depended on whether the sedentary case was maintained by self persistence or network persistence. Self persistence declined gradually with increasing home range and larval dispersal distance, while network persistence decreased sharply to 0 above a threshold home range and was less dependent on larval dispersal distance. The maximum home range size protected by a reserve network increased with the fraction of coastline in reserves and decreasing exploitation rates outside reserves. Spillover due to movement within a home range contributed to yield moderately under certain conditions, although yield contributions were generally not as large as those from spillover due to larval dispersal. Our results indicate that, for species exhibiting home range behavior, persistence in a network of marine reserves may be more predictable than previously anticipated from models based solely on larval dispersal, in part due to better knowledge of home range sizes. Including movement within a home range can change persistence results significantly from those assuming that adults are sedentary; hence it is an important consideration in reserve design.
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1051-0761 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 34
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