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Auteur Magris, R.A.; Andrello, M.; Pressey, R.L.; Mouillot, D.; Dalongeville, A.; Jacobi, M.N.; Manel, S. doi  openurl
  Titre Biologically representative and well-connected marine reserves enhance biodiversity persistence in conservation planning Type Article scientifique
  Année 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée Conserv. Lett.  
  Volume 11 Numéro 4 Pages Unsp-e12439  
  Mots-Clés biodiversity conservation; climate-change; coral-reefs; design; larval dispersal; marine protected areas; marine reserve design; networks; population connectivity; protected areas; spatial planning; spatial prioritization  
  Résumé Current methods in conservation planning for promoting the persistence of biodiversity typically focus on either representing species geographic distributions or maintaining connectivity between reserves, but rarely both, and take a focal species, rather than a multispecies, approach. Here, we link prioritization methods with population models to explore the impact of integrating both representation and connectivity into conservation planning for species persistence. Using data on 288 Mediterranean fish species with varying conservation requirements, we show that: (1) considering both representation and connectivity objectives provides the best strategy for enhanced biodiversity persistence and (2) connectivity objectives were fundamental to enhancing persistence of small-ranged species, which are most in need of conservation, while the representation objective benefited only wide-ranging species. Our approach provides a more comprehensive appraisal of planning applications than approaches focusing on either representation or connectivity, and will hopefully contribute to build more effective reserve networks for the persistence of biodiversity.  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1755-263x ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2423  
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Auteur Monsarrat, S.; Pennino, M.G.; Smith, T.D.; Reeves, R.R.; Meynard, C.N.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rodrigues, A.S.L. doi  openurl
  Titre A spatially explicit estimate of the prewhaling abundance of the endangered North Atlantic right whale Type Article scientifique
  Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Conserv. Biol.  
  Volume 30 Numéro 4 Pages 783-791  
  Mots-Clés animals; areas de alimentacion; caza de ballenas; Conservation; Eubalaena; eubalaena-glacialis; feeding grounds; generalized additive modeling; historical baseline; historical data; linea base historica; modelado aditivo generalizado; models; pacific; population size; records; tamano de poblacion; target; whaling  
  Résumé The North Atlantic right whale (NARW) (Eubalaena glacialis) is one of the world's most threatened whales. It came close to extinction after nearly a millennium of exploitation and currently persists as a population of only approximately 500 individuals. Setting appropriate conservation targets for this species requires an understanding of its historical population size, as a baseline for measuring levels of depletion and progress toward recovery. This is made difficult by the scarcity of records over this species' long whaling history. We sought to estimate the preexploitation population size of the North Atlantic right whale and understand how this species was distributed across its range. We used a spatially explicit data set on historical catches of North Pacific right whales (NPRWs) (Eubalaena japonica) to model the relationship between right whale relative density and the environment during the summer feeding season. Assuming the 2 right whale species select similar environments, we projected this model to the North Atlantic to predict how the relative abundance of NARWs varied across their range. We calibrated these relative abundances with estimates of the NPRW total prewhaling population size to obtain high and low estimates for the overall NARW population size prior to exploitation. The model predicted 9,075-21,328 right whales in the North Atlantic. The current NARW population is thus <6% of the historical North Atlantic carrying capacity and has enormous potential for recovery. According to the model, in June-September NARWs concentrated in 2 main feeding areas: east of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and in the Norwegian Sea. These 2 areas may become important in the future as feeding grounds and may already be used more regularly by this endangered species than is thought. Una Estimacion Espacialmente Explicita de la Abundancia Previa a la Caza de la Ballena Franca del Atlantico Norte en Peligro de Extincion La ballena franca del Atlantico Norte (BFAN) (Eubalaena glacialis) es una de las ballenas mas amenazadas del mundo. Su extincion estuvo proxima despues de casi un milenio de explotacion y actualmente persiste una poblacion de aproximadamente 500 individuos. El establecimiento de objetivos de conservacion apropiados para esta especie requiere del entendimiento del tamano historico de la poblacion como la linea base para la medida de los niveles de disminucion y el progreso hacia la recuperacion. Esto se dificulta por la escasez de registros sobre la larga historia de la caza de esta especie. Buscamos estimar el tamano poblacional previo a la explotacion de la ballena franca del Atlantico Norte y entender como se distribuia esta especie a lo largo de su extension. Usamos un conjunto de datos espacialmente explicitos sobre las capturas historicas de las ballenas francas del Pacifico Norte (BFPN) (Eubalaena japonica) para modelar la relacion entre la densidad relativa de ballenas francas y el ambiente durante la temporada de verano de alimentacion. Cuando asumimos que las dos especies de ballenas francas seleccionan ambientes similares, pudimos proyectar este modelo hacia el Atlantico Norte y asi poder predecir como la abundancia relativa de las BFAN vario a lo largo de su extension. Calibramos estas abundancias relativas con los estimados del tamano poblacional total previo a la caza de las BFPN y asi obtener estimados altos y bajos para el tamano poblacional general de las BFAN previo a la explotacion. El modelo predijo la existencia de 9, 075 – 21, 328 ballenas francas en el Atlantico Norte. La poblacion actual de BFAN es entonces <6 % a la capacidad de carga historica del Atlantico Norte, por lo que tiene un potencial enorme para la recuperacion. De acuerdo al modelo, entre junio y septiembre, las BFAN se concentraron en dos areas de alimentacion principales: al este de los Grandes Bancos de Terranova y en el Mar de Noruega. Estas dos areas pueden volverse importantes en el futuro como sitios de alimentacion y puede que ya sean usadas por esta especie de manera mas regular de lo que se cree. Resumen  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0888-8892 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1641  
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Auteur Sheehan, E.V.; Vaz, S.; Pettifer, E.; Foster, N.L.; Nancollas, S.J.; Cousens, S.; Holmes, L.; Facq, J.-V.; Germain, G.; Attrill, M.J. doi  openurl
  Titre An experimental comparison of three towed underwater video systems using species metrics, benthic impact and performance Type Article scientifique
  Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Methods Ecol. Evol.  
  Volume 7 Numéro 7 Pages 843-852  
  Mots-Clés biodiversity; Conservation; environmental management; management; marine protected area; marine protected areas; meta-analyses; range; sampling impact; sea; towed video; underwater imagery  
  Résumé Managing ecological systems, which operate over large spatial scales, is inherently difficult and often requires sourcing data from different countries and organizations. The assumption might be made that data collected using similar methodologies are comparable, but this is rarely tested. Here, benthic video data recorded using different towed underwater video systems (TUVSs) were experimentally compared. Three technically different TUVSs were compared on different seabed types (rocky, mixed ground and sandy) in Kingmere Marine Conservation Zone, off the south coast of England. For each TUVS, species metrics (forward facing camera), seabed impact (backward facing camera) and operational performance (strengths and limitations of equipment and video footage) were compared with the aim of providing recommendations on their future use and comparability of data between different systems. Statistically significant differences between species richness, density, cover and assemblage composition were detected amongst devices and were believed to be mostly due to their optical specifications. As a result of their high image definition and large field of vision both the benthic contacting heavy and benthic tending TUVS provided good quality footage and ecological measurements. However, the heaviest TUVS proved difficult to operate on irregular ground and was found to cause the most impact to the seabed. The lightest TUVS (benthic contacting light) struggled to maintain contact with the seabed. The benthic tending TUVS was able to fly over variable seabed relief and was comparably the least destructive. Results from this study highlight that particular care should be given to sled and optic specifications when developing a medium- or long-term marine protected area monitoring programme. Furthermore, when using data gathered from multiple sources to test ecological questions, different equipment specifications may confound observed ecological differences. A benthic tending TUVS is recommended for benthic surveys over variable habitat types, particularly in sensitive areas, such as marine protected areas.  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 2041-210x ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1645  
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Auteur Goetze, J.S.; Claudet, J.; Januchowski-Hartley, F.; Langlois, T.J.; Wilson, S.K.; White, C.; Weeks, R.; Jupiter, S.D. doi  openurl
  Titre Demonstrating multiple benefits from periodically harvested fisheries closures Type Article scientifique
  Année 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée J. Appl. Ecol.  
  Volume 55 Numéro 3 Pages 1102-1113  
  Mots-Clés analytical framework; conservation; coral-reef fishes; customary management; fisheries management; food security; locally managed marine areas; long-term; management; marine protected areas; marine reserve; matter; meta-analysis; metaanalysis; partially protected areas; periodically harvested closures; populations; reserves; small-scale fisheries; video  
  Résumé 1. Periodically harvested closures (PHCs) are one of the most common forms of fisheries management in Melanesia, demonstrating multiple objectives, including sustaining fish stocks and increasing catch efficiency to support small-scale fisheries. No studies have comprehensively assessed their ability to provide short-term fisheries benefits across the entire harvest regime. 2. We present a novel analytical framework to guide a meta-analysis and assist future research in conceptualizing and assessing the potential of PHCs to deliver benefits for multiple fisheries-related objectives. 3. Ten PHCs met our selection criteria and on average, they provided a 48% greater abundance and 92% greater biomass of targeted fishes compared with areas open to fishing prior to being harvested. 4. This translated into tangible harvest benefits, with fishers removing 21% of the abundance and 49% of the biomass within PHCs, resulting in few post-harvest protection benefits. 5. When PHCs are larger, closed for longer periods or well enforced, short-term fisheries benefits are improved. However, an increased availability of fish within PHCs leads to greater removal during harvests. 6. Synthesis and applications. Periodically harvested closures (PHCs) can provide short-term fisheries benefits. Use of the analytical framework presented here will assist in determining long-term fisheries and conservation benefits. We recommend PHCs be closed to fishing for as long as possible, be as large as possible, that compliance be encouraged via community engagement and enforcement, and strict deadlines/goals for harvesting set to prevent overfishing.  
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  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2345  
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Auteur Kaplan, D.M.; Cuif, M.; Fauvelot, C.; Vigliola, L.; Nguyen-Huu, T.; Tiavouane, J.; Lett, C. doi  openurl
  Titre Uncertainty in empirical estimates of marine larval connectivity Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée ICES J. Mar. Sci.  
  Volume 74 Numéro 6 Pages 1723-1734  
  Mots-Clés connectivity; dispersal; Larval dispersal; management; model; parentage analysis; persistence; population; protected areas; Reef fish; reserves; self-recruitment; Transgenerational marking  
  Résumé Despite major advances in our capacity to measure marine larval connectivity (i.e. the pattern of transport of marine larvae from spawning to settlement sites) and the importance of these measurements for ecological and management questions, uncertainty in experimental estimates of marine larval connectivity has been given little attention. We review potential uncertainty sources in empirical larval connectivity studies and develop Bayesian statistical methods for estimating these uncertainties based on standard techniques in the mark-recapture and genetics literature. These methods are implemented in an existing R package for working with connectivity data, ConnMatTools, and applied to a number of published connectivity estimates. We find that the small sample size of collected settlers at destination sites is a dominant source of uncertainty in connectivity estimates in many published results. For example, widths of 95% CIs for relative connectivity, the value of which is necessarily between 0 and 1, exceeded 0.5 for many published connectivity results, complicating using individual results to conclude that marine populations are relatively closed or open. This “small sample size” uncertainty is significant even for studies with near-exhaustive sampling of spawners and settlers. Though largely ignored in the literature, the magnitude of this uncertainty is straightforward to assess. Better accountability of this and other uncertainties is needed in the future so that marine larval connectivity studies can fulfill their promises of providing important ecological insights and informing management questions (e.g. related to marine protected area network design, and stock structure of exploited organisms). In addition to using the statistical methods developed here, future studies should consistently evaluate and report a small number of critical factors, such as the exhaustivity of spawner and settler sampling, and the mating structure of target species in genetic studies.  
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  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1054-3139 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2170  
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